Abstract:

Certain flat, planar molecules can insert between DNA base pairs (intercalate) to disrupt replication and transcription upon mitosis in cells. This makes them ideal candidates for mitigation of tumor growth, a process which relies on uncontrolled cell division. To design improved drugs, an understanding of both thermodynamic and kinetic intercalative pictures is necessary. Currently, kinetic information is technique limited. Stopped-flow fluorimetry measurements have 10 ms time resolution, unfortunately many binding reactions occur on timescales orders of magnitude faster. A homebuilt temperature jump (T-jump) apparatus could achieve up to 1 μs resolution via capacitance discharge heating coupled with relaxation kinetics. This works by converting stored electrical energy from a capacitor to thermal energy in solution where binding occurs. A faster capacitor discharge leads to quicker solution heating and increased resolution in relaxation kinetics calculations.

An interesting case study is provided by the intercalating drug proflavine. Using molecular dynamics calculations, Mukherjee et al. found that the intercalation mechanism involves both the major or minor groove of DNA. This is the first report of major groove involvement. Systematically blocking each groove before measuring kinetics via T-jump will show, experimentally, whether both grooves are involved in the intercalative binding mechanism. This technique and investigation of major groove involvement can be applied to many chemotherapy agents and will pave the way for future drug synthesis for superior anti-tumor potency.

Abstract:

Research conducted by Rudman and Mescher (2012) found that men’s animalization and objectification of women, measured via Implicit Association Tests (IAT), correlated with their likelihood to commit rape. The current study expands this research by using IATs to examine three fundamental components of objectification: ownership, interchangeability, and lack of agency. As expected, rape proclivity was predicted by the following: rape myth acceptance, a rape behavioral analogue measure, degrading pornography use, avoidance of femininity, and stress when in subordination to women. Importantly, the IATs both separately and in combination predicted men’s attitudes toward women. Associating women with “being owned” was correlated with increased subordination-to-women stress, and viewing women as interchangeable was correlated with greater avoidance of femininity. For participants who implicitly endorsed women as interchangeable, men’s association of women as “being owned” was correlated with a closer approximation to the “ideal” female waist-hip ratio of 0.7 and a greater rape proclivity. This research provides additional evidence that aspects of implicit objectification, particularly ownership and interchangeability, are predictors of men's idealized views of women’s bodies and rape proclivity.

Abstract:

St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, is a small, volcanic piece of land in the Bering Strait. Closer to Russia than to Alaska, the island has been occupied for 3,000 years or more. Today, the Siberian Yupik villages of Gambell and Savoonga are the only two villages on the island. Both villages have joint ownership of the land, as recognized officially in 1971. The people practice traditional subsistence methods, hunting walrus and whale while also drying fish and harvesting the land for berries.

Dr. Jon Rosales and I traveled to Savoonga in January to assess language loss among the native peoples and the connections this loss has to the changing climate. We interviewed two groups (a group of young adults, and a group of elders) to qualitatively assess the factors that are resulting in a decreased amount of time spent speaking their native tongue.

The people of St. Lawrence Island have persisted in preserving customary cultural activities despite the constant outside pressures from modern countries for assimilation. The required school system structures and the infringement of technological advancements hinders the ability for Siberian Yupik communities to continue using traditional cultural practices, yet the peoples have sustained much of their ethnic system. Part of this is due to their physical isolation from the mainland of both Russia and Alaska; because the Island was difficult and dangerous to reach, Western assimilation efforts were substantially hindered from encroachment. Religious missionary efforts and the introduction of electricity and mainland technologies came to the island at a time when other indigenous communities in Alaska had already been dealing with assimilation pressures for hundreds of years. Yet western influence has now completely reached the island in the forms of technology and the structured education system.

In addition to western influence, the changing climate is drastically affecting the people of Savoonga’s ability to practice Siberian Yupik culture. The Siberian Yupik language is delicately intertwined with their knowledge of the biophysical sphere in which they live. Hunters specifically rely on the language to communicate when navigating the sea ice.

Hunting trips are one of the only times in which Siberian Yupik is the only language spoken; they say English sounds wrong on the ice. But climate change is making it more and more difficult to hunt, and to pass on the knowledge that’s associated with hunting.

The children are being forced to rely on the English language to succeed in school, and without long hunting trips they are not able to learn their Traditional Ecological Knowledge. The environment is hindering their ability to practice their culture while western societal pressures for assimilation strengthen.

Abstract:

Is there evidence of racism in calls made by soccer referees? If so, is it possible to prove a cause-and-effect relationship? Soccer is a universal, wide-world sport that anyone can easily participate. Thanks to this, most nations are part of the soccer community and compete against each other. Unfortunately, while such soccer competitions must retain impartiality and unbiasedness, numerous factors can sabotage soccer matches. One potential factor is a biased call made by a racist soccer referee. One research project elected to study this through crowdsourcing with analysts from different professions. Surprisingly, using identical data did not guarantee an identical outcome. Each of the 29 analysis teams used their own statistical method and approach to address the question. We examine these methods while also presenting our own analysis of the data. In this project, we look at the presence of racist referees while also addressing how easy it is for one set of data to point to different conclusions.

Abstract:

The Massena-Cornwall earthquake (September 5th, 1944) is the largest earthquake in New York State history. Two epicenters have been previously proposed (Milne, 1949; Dewey and Gordon, 1984). However, they are separated by 15 km, an error that could associate each proposed epicenter with two different local faults. Due to the lack of standardized seismic-array data, there is value in approaching this event from an unconventional data set. The methodology of MacDonald and Wentworth (1952) was executed through ArcMap 10.5.1 to yield an area most likely to contain the epicenter. 154 earthquake-rotated headstones from 15 cemeteries within 20 miles of Massena, NY were measured for angle of rotation via a digital goniometer (0.1 ̊ resolution). The mean angle of rotation is 1.9 ̊(cf., 0.1 ̊for unaffected, post-1944 headstones: p<0.0001), independent of rotation direction. Factoring in the average strike of headstones in each cemetery, an octant was projected based on whether the cemetery had predominantly experienced clockwise or counter-clockwise rotation. The area of densest overlap between the projected octants is an ~20km2 area centered in the St. Lawrence River (proposed epicenter at N45.014, W74.815) six miles east of Massena. This area is bisected by the Gloucester Fault: an extension of the of the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben. This project is an improvement on previous studies of the 1944-rotated headstones (e.g., Berkey, 1945) by analyzing quantitative rotational data within an ArcMap framework. These refined data implicate a rupture along an extension of the Gloucester Fault—a potential threat to the nearby Moses-Saunders Power Dam.

Abstract:

People spend much of their adult lives in work or study spaces, so it is important to improve environments to make users more comfortable and productive. Research suggests biophilia, or the human tendency to seek affiliation with nature, may foster higher levels of positive affect and promote effective cognitive functioning. This study of 53 St. Lawrence University students explored the positive role of natural and symbolic biophilia on mood and creativity. As hypothesized, the biophilia office resulted in significantly higher pleasantness ratings than a neutral office. As first suggested by summer focus groups, natural science and mathematics majors were especially positively impacted by biophilia. Although many researchers report dramatic effects on productivity and health, the current study supports a more moderate effect, primarily limited to pleasantness.

Abstract:

The CNTNAP2 gene has been implicated in several neuropsychological disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. The CNTNAP2 knockout (KO) rodent model, rats without the CNTNAP2 gene, exhibits deficits in social interaction and increases in both repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors. However, choice and timing behaviors that may underlie several neuropsychological disorders have not been investigated. The current study investigated timing and delay discounting in the CNTNAP2 KO rat model compared to Sprague-Dawley control rats. Results suggest possible reductions in timing precision and increased impulsivity in the model. In particular, the reductions in timing precision are consistent with similar findings previously reported in humans diagnosed with ASD. These findings are promising for understanding the role that the CNTNAP2 gene may play in certain neuropsychological disorders, and for developing targeted therapies.

Abstract:

We examine the dissemination and possible spillover effects of new information and trading behavior within the technology sector by studying the stock market reaction to Edward Snowden’s disclosures concerning the National Security Agency’s extraction of private data. To investigate the initial responses and test for volatility spillover effects of U.S. internet sites and internet service providers, we implement event study methodologies and build generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedastic (GARCH) models. Our results suggest that the disclosure of new information has limited effects on the returns of technology companies. While the results of the GARCH models are suggestive at this point, we expect that volatility contagions, if present, to be transient.

Abstract:

My SYE research project investigates the conservation legislation on colonial heritage put in place in the late 19th century and 1970s by the state and city governments of Kolkata, India and Singapore respectfully. The aim of my study is to take a closer look at the similarities and differences in colonial heritage conservation practices of these two past British colonial cities. Founded in 1686, Kolkata was an important city of the British East India Company and British Empire till 1947. Singapore, founded in 1965, was a British crown colony from 1946 to 1963. Today, both cities recognize the heritage value of their governmental, commercial and residential colonial buildings and both countries have nationally established laws and committees focusing on the conservation of colonial monuments. However, India's heritage conservation methods continue to be based on colonial ideologies of protection with a focus on preservation of monuments for observational usages. By contrast, Singapore uses more recent models of interactive usage to promote the redevelopment and restoration of colonial heritage for tourism. My presentation will illustrate these two distinct methods by comparing and contrasting two colonial heritage buildings that function as museums today: the Victoria Memorial Hall in Calcutta and the National Gallery of Singapore, both of which I visited during my semester abroad.

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: The portrayal of status has long been part of social interactions all across the world. This study examines status expression as part of identity formation. In the twentieth-first century, Instagram, alongside other social media, play an important role in shaping the way we look at others and ourselves. By applying theories of capital, identity management, and conspicuous consumption, this research identifies patterns in the ways people use Instagram to portray and seek status. This paper addresses the question: How does the existence of Instagram affect the meaning of identity in the twenty-first century?

METHODS: The research employs digital ethnographic content analysis on a sample of 787 posts using the #instagood hashtag, which remained after cleaning a simple random sample of 5,000 posts.

RESULTS: When applying Goffman’s theory on the front and back stage to self-presentation on Instagram, it becomes visible that Instagrammers actively hide the labor they put into constructing a high-status image of themselves. The most notable finding is that Instagram users hide their use of like-hunter hashtags, a specific status-seeking category of hashtags that have the main goal of increasing likes and follows, in three clear ways.

CONCLUSIONS: In the digital age, Instagram users hide their status-seeking behavior as part of creating and maintaining the presentation of their aspirational self. This shines a new light on Marwick’s concept of aspirational production, as the perfecting of one’s online presentation does not only happen by producing a high-status image, but also by concealing the “non-authentic” nature of this production. This further clarifies the ways we understand identity formation and authenticity in the twenty-first century.

Abstract:

The exceptionally rich architectural heritage of the western Indian coastal city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), is deeply rooted in the city’s Portuguese and British colonial history. My SYE research examines the role of these colonial powers in shaping Bombay’s architectural design and urban plan, and specifically, in creating separate white and native spaces. With this in mind, I travelled to Mumbai last month to conduct an observational study of colonial buildings in south Mumbai’s Fort area, which was once the heart of the British colonial port city. In addition to observing the layering of cultural identities and diverse architectural styles, I was particularly struck by the sharp juxtaposition of heritage structures with modern skyscrapers. As India’s financial capital and home to a successful film industry, Mumbai has a real estate sector that is expanding at a fast pace, often at the cost of heritage structures. But, more often than not, the past coexists with the present as a separate entity. This relationship is most evident today when comparing urban planning and architectural conservation of the various districts that make up Mumbai. Combining observational research and interviews with practicing architects and educators, my study compares historic conservation in the prosperous Bandra and Byculla districts with that of the prestigious Fort and Malabar Hills areas. Thus, the scope of my research has grown beyond mapping British and Portuguese influence in architecture to include a study of present day initiatives by Mumbai’s citizens for the conservation and restoration of historical places.

Abstract:

The USGS collects data on discharge rates for many rivers including several in the Adirondack region. We have monthly data going back as early as 1908 for 23 sampling sites. Our goal in this project is to create a web application to aid geologists in the visualization and analysis of these time series data. We use the Shiny platform in R to build tools to plot the data in various forms. We enhance these visualizations with techniques such as simple exponential smoothing, seasonal and simple linear regression models, Holt Winters smoothing, and a monthly spaghetti plot to investigate and highlight trends in the data.

Abstract:

In this poster I present my progress towards building a synthesizer for a bass guitar. A synthesizer is a musical instrument capable of producing a very wide range of electronic sounds including those of other instruments. After measuring the signal produced by an electric bass guitar, I analyzed the data using Discrete Fourier Transform functions in Wolfram Mathematica. I resynthesized the waveform and produced a recognizable bass guitar sound. I will present the results of this work including the methods I used to model the attack, sustain and decay aspects of the waveform.

Abstract:

We implemented an interactive augmented reality Android mobile game. Similar to Pokemon Go, our app includes features such as GPS tracking and distance measurements, camera, speakers, and WiFi connection. The main goal of the game is for users to explore their environment and “capture” ghosts as they appear on the user’s android device within a limited time frame.

Abstract:

Current data show large disparities in disciplinary actions experienced by students of color as opposed to their White classmates. Discourse and policy language in school codes of conduct can reflect the endemic nature of racism in society, which, in turn, negatively impacts students of color. Utilizing statistical, sentiment, and critical discourse analysis, this mixed methods research provides a more complex view of the impact of policy on the disproportionality of discipline in schools. This research examines how racism and classism interact with discipline in schools and how this contributes to high dropout rates and the school-to-prison pipeline.

Abstract:

Edaravone (Radicava) is a synthetic antioxidant that was developed 30 years ago in Japan to treat oxidative injury and is used as a current treatment for ischemic strokes in Japan. The edaravone anion can selectively transfer a single electron to free radical species such as superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. In the process, edaravone neutralizes the free radical, but becomes a radical itself that is relatively stable and can secondarily react with oxygen to form a neutral product. Edaravone has also been shown to react with reactive oxygen species and peroxynitrite in an electrophilic substitution reaction to form a neutral product. More recently, edaravone has been evaluated in the treatment of a variety of illnesses including glaucoma, cardiovascular, hepatic, and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we wanted compare the performance characteristics (tissue sparing) between edaravone and cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) using an in vitro model of ischemic stroke. CeNPs have nano-crystalline structures (5 nm; ~180 atoms) that have the capacity to either donate or accept electrons within their lattice structure, resulting in a valence state change between Ce3+ and Ce4+. In biological systems, CeNPs behave like solid-state enzymes, where they function as super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase mimetics. Similar to edaravone, CeNPs neutralize a wide variety of biologically damaging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Moreover, CeNPs have been shown to be protective in many neurodegenerative diseases including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. In these experiments we prepared live, hippocampal, brain slices from age and sex matched mice. In brain slices, all types of cells are present in their native configuration and some of the micro-circuitry in the brain tissue is retained. Ischemia was induced by placing the slices in a hypoglycemic, acidic, and hypoxic artificial cerebral spinal fluid solution for thirty minutes. The sections were then placed in culture for 24 hours with either edaravone or CeNPs. Controls were handled identically, but received no treatment. Tissue loss was measured 24 hours after the ischemic insult using Sytox Blue, which enters dead and dying cells, binds to the DNA and produces a fluorescent signal that is ~300x greater than the unbound dye alone. At equimolar concentrations, CeNPs (5.8 μM) reduced ischemic death by approximately 20%, while edaravone showed no sparing at either 5.8 μM or 11.6 μM. In subsequent experiments, we will escalate the dose of edaravone to identify a concentration that will induce sparing. Our preliminary results suggest that CeNPs are more effective compounds at reducing tissue death associated with oxidative injury following ischemia compared to edaravone.

Abstract:

Previous research has found that when incriminating evidence is deemed inadmissible, guilty verdicts decrease compared to when the evidence is admissible. Surprisingly, a series of recent studies revealed that this decrease in guilty verdicts is significantly lower compared to when the incriminating evidence is never presented (and replaced by what is thought to be benign evidence). Potential explanations include (a) an overcorrection by the juror in assessing the potential bias from being introduced to the inadmissible evidence and (b) the evidence used to replace the incriminating evidence is itself damaging to the case of the defendant. To investigate, the standard no-evidence condition was compared to an alternative. The number of guilty verdicts did not differ by evidence type, suggesting the standard no-evidence condition was sufficiently neutral. Thus, jurors privy to the incriminating evidence but asked to disregard it may be overcorrecting, erring on the side of a defendant’s rights rather than their guilt. We encourage further research on this overcorrection effect, with particular emphasis on strategies to attenuate this bias.

Abstract:

According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, at the end of 2016, “6,613,500 persons were supervised by the U.S. adult corrections systems,” which included “persons supervised in the community on probation or parole and those incarcerated in state or federal prison or local jail”. Within as little as three years, 67.8% of those released were rearrested. While this information is likely shocking to some, the lack of exploratory research and academic focus on this data is even more troubling. To understand this issue, I engage the work of Michel Foucault and Judith Butler to critique disciplinary forms of power and subjectivity formation in the context of the prison. In reading Foucault’s Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, it became apparent how disciplinary forms of governance affect the formation of individual subjectivity and the structure of institutions like prisons. The conservative Christian activist Chuck Colson’s work inside of prison as well as the legacy he has left for Prison Fellowship act as a node of access to the larger scope of incarceration in the United States. By focusing on Colson’s work and Prison Fellowship’s activities I draw attention to the correlations between the institutional power structures of the prison and the institutional power structures of Christianity. Calvinistic disciplinary ideology in particular mirrors the goals of the institution of incarceration because they are both grounded in this problematic framework of disciplinary forms of governance. The same historical forces that have shaped Colson’s ideology and that of Prison Fellowship are the same that formulated this country’s prison system. Colson’s development of Prison Fellowship and the corresponding programming currently offered to incarcerated individuals reinforces the system of incarceration in varying forms. The current ideology surrounding reform, from this perspective, further reifies disciplinary forms of governance and the reshaping of a ‘good’ subject along the ideological lines of Christian discipline.

Abstract:

Using camera traps to assess winter mammal diversity in northern New York State

Katherine E. Andy*, Donovan K. Spaulding, Erika L. Barthelmess

Department of Biology, St. Lawrence University, Canton, NY 13617 USA

Game camera trapping is a useful and non-invasive way to determine species diversity. This study is a comparative analysis of the general winter species diversity in deciduous versus pine forests in St. Lawrence County, New York. We selected 6 state forests in St. Lawrence County, 3 deciduous and 3 planted pine. Camera traps were placed in 2 phases, with 24 camera deployments during each phase. We deployed the cameras at 4 randomly generated sites per forest. In the second phase, we relocated each camera to a new random site within the same forest. Photos were uploaded to Zooniverse, a citizen-science platform that enables the public to assist with species identification. We measured mammal species richness in each forest and across forest types. Preliminary results suggest that there is a higher mammal species richness in deciduous forests than in managed pine forests during the winter. Understanding how many different species are present in an ecosystem, and understanding how different habitats support species within an ecosystem, is critical when planning conservation strategies.

Abstract:

Abstract:

This poster is about authorship attribution of “The Hound of the Baskervilles”, the third of four novels by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle featuring the detective Sherlock Holmes. After its publication, the novel gained instant success, but controversy came after. There were some claims that Bertram Fletcher Robinson, a very close friend of Conan Doyle, coauthored the book, in some accounts writing the entire first section. We will discuss some stylometric techniques, including cluster analysis, consensus trees, and Burrow’s Delta, and then discuss the results from applying these methods to “The Hound of the Baskervilles.”

Abstract:

The Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster (PPS) Survey (APPSS) is using the Arecibo L-Band Wide (LBW) receiver to observe galaxies in the direction of PPS. The goal is to derive peculiar velocities and distances via the Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relation (BTFR) I have analyzed observations along a strip of the sky between the declinations of 23° and 35° and right ascensions 22h to 3h. The strip included 133 targets. I analyzed each target’s LBW spectrum using IDL procedures developed by astronomers at Cornell University to determine whether they were detections of real galaxies or false detections due to radio frequency interference (RFI). For real galaxies, the parameters derived included the total flux, the recessional velocity, and velocity width due to the rotation rate of the galaxy. The values of these parameters indicate whether the target is a good candidate for application of the BTFR. Thirty-nine percent of the 133 targets were detected, among which 56% are likely to be galaxies. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) provides the optical observations which can be used to calculate the distances of galaxies via BTFR. With the distances, the Hubble velocities due to the expansion of the universe can be separated from the peculiar velocities due to the gravitational attraction of the dark matter filament. An ultimate goal of APPSS is to calculate the total mass of the dark matter filament along which the PPS is aligned, using all the galaxies detected over the four years of APPSS observations.

Abstract:

Is agency for profit? As international nonprofit organizations push market-involvement and empowerment through entrepreneurship, the influence of neoliberalism in empowerment discourse becomes evident. To explore this research question, I conducted semi-structured interviews with participants at the Hawker's Market Girls Centre, a financial empowerment program for young, low-income women in Nairobi. Throughout the year-long course, participants learn entrepreneurial skills such as hairdressing, catering, and computer work. In conducting these interviews, I aimed to identify the ways in which participants define their own empowerment. Additionally, I sought to explore the structures influencing their responses. As a result, I examined the influences of the colonial project, neoliberalism, the rise of nongovernmental organizations, U.S. and British structural power, and transnational feminism on women’s empowerment discourses in urban Kenya. My findings reflect a complicated narrative surrounding women's empowerment, both citing individualism and collective action as essential components of empowerment. Throughout this paper, theorists such as Stuart Hall, Raymond Williams, Antonio Gramsci, Karl Polanyi, and Karl Marx will be placed in conversation with participant responses. Additionally, this research seeks to incorporate narratives to preserve and place value on the voices of participants. Ultimately, participant understandings of women's empowerment cannot be examined outside of greater political-economic, historical, and social power structures, and as a result, this project works to identify how and why these structures produce such complicated, and even conflicting, responses.

Abstract:

Bread is an incredibly diverse food. It can be adapted to fit diverse tastes and, done right, it is nutritious. Food security is possible, and The Women’s Bakery (TWB) espouses a model that addresses the food insecurity and malnutrition in Rwanda. Though not an organization focused solely on biomedical conceptions of health, TWB uses their bakeries as a platform to inform women about their health and nutritional needs. In doing so, they also address the broad causes of food insecurity in Rwanda. By providing an education that women utilize through their employment in the bakeries, TWB paves the way for women to reduce the effects of poverty and a lack of education. From there, TWB broadens the women’s knowledge of nutrition and health, and they can then use this information in a way that directly impacts themselves, their families, and their communities. Ultimately, the ability to combat food insecurity depends on power, the power to produce an income, the power to purchase, and the power to access food. When women are given this power they are able to overcome the gender imbalances that harm them, and The Women’s Bakery truly provides an avenue to do this. In short, the bread baked by these women gives them the opportunity to empower themselves through healthy changes for themselves and their families; that, is “Bread Power.”

Abstract:

Thinking in 4D is a great skill to have pre-trained when entering the military; ROTC cadets are a good proxy for this issue. Army ROTC cadets are able to select any major; however, a choice of geology can likely best prepare them as future, thinking warfighters. During seven weeks of summer training, personal observations aligned with geological thinking/skills were recorded. These observations focused on the perceived advantage over others and potential success as a future second lieutenant. Geology-related examples include learned skills such as terrain analysis, proper use of a map and compass, maintaining field equipment, and living out of a backpack for weeks at a time. During this time, 4D thinking likely led to more success as a platoon or squad leader; probably, due to the flexibility and adaptability to a changing environment where there is no “right” answer to the problem at hand.  These successes were graded as “proficient” by the cadre and promoted during the after-action reviews. Cadets majoring in psychology or criminology, for example, seemed to struggle to understand the strategic picture during missions, such as the task and purpose of setting a hasty ambush, or transitioning to the defense. This is likely because geologists assess situations in time, space and support, while relying on a pragmatic approach in lieu of an emotional or unilateral train of thought. Geology and the US military have a strong bond, specifically with the recent use of solider-expert hybrids or soldiers who work as professional geologists. In order to have an effective Army, officers with a variety of majors is key; however, more geology-degreed officers would automatically bring the important skill of 4D thinking—paramount in an ever-changing battlefield and world. Even though Army ROTC teaches and attempts to stress the importance of critical thinking, it is up to universities to incorporate this thought process into the curriculum and test their students. Geology does this in both the classroom and the field with repetition and stress on thinking in 4D, which, over the course of an undergraduate degree, transforms the way a student, or cadet views the world. The Army needs every soldier to be a “thinking warfighter,” and with the choice of geology as a major, this can be more easily accomplished.

Abstract:

When addressing past injustices against indigenous communities within the United States, there must be sufficient acknowledgement of the intersection between environmental justice and reproductive justice experienced by impacted populations.

Abstract:

Military Industrial Complex is a billion dollar industry that has unsustainable budget and ineffective in solving problems globally. A nonviolence approach is more effective than a violent one regarding conflict management. The aim is to explore these solutions in depth.

Abstract:

Violence is rampant in modern American society, and exposure to the normalized culture of this reactionary behavior is increasingly available to today’s youth. A great deal of culture is absorbed throughout childhood and perpetuated through the primary education system. By teaching peace-building skills in primary schools, in a way that is mindful of the violence that young students are exposed to in their communities, we can override destructive culture through internal strength training. This work starts by exploring practical integration measures of nonviolence education in primary schools, and communities, in a way that is interdisciplinary and cost-effective. The analysis of skill-building methods continues by synthesizing research on the effective use of mindfulness, meditation, and breathing practices within primary education. By giving young students the tools to be in touch with their internal states and react mindfully, they may improve upon the peace-building skills learned in the classroom and create lasting community change.

Abstract:

Rampant dehumanization of minority groups on the basis of such characteristics as race, class, religion and ethnicity is an issue that contributes heavily to the ineffective, discriminatory and overzealous nature of the U.S. criminal justice system. This essay outlines the processes of both deliberate and normalized dehumanization, as well as why and how these processes are utilized to bias the psyches of the general public. Central to this examination are the ways in which dehumanization, specifically of racial and ethnic minorities, reveals itself within every stage of the American justice process, from police brutality to unjust treatment in prisons. To address the constancy and severity of these issues, a number of solutions are proposed through criminal justice reform, as well as methods of "rehumanization," through increased nonviolence training, education of criminal justice workers and the general public, and a refocusing of everyday rhetoric and media representation.

Abstract:

Submarine substrate types and their location allow representative habitats to be identified using benthic habitat and facies maps. Recognizing these habitats can be useful for examining carbonate depositional facies in different areas. This study utilized the field data collected during the GEOL-320 field course in Jamaica (March 16-24, 2019) to test two hypotheses: (1) water depth controls the depositional environment and its resulting facies; and (2) high-resolution (drone) orthophotography can be used to identify the lateral distribution of different shallow-marine habitats. The latter, if used in combination with field survey (snorkeling) and subsequent laboratory analyses, can provide high-resolution habitat and facies maps in tropical, clear-water, shallow-marine settings; such maps will have higher resolution than currently available maps and will take less time to construct thus having a much lower cost. Our research was conducted in the Little Laughlands Bay off of the Northern coast of Jamaica, where we focused on habitat transitions along a total of eleven transects. The field component included a sea-floor survey, identification of biota, bathymetric measurements, sample collection, and drone orthophotography. At transects 150 meters apart, we measured the depth every 30 meters offshore and collected sand samples of the substrate, along with coordinates, every 100 meters. The results indicate that the depositional environment is primarily controlled by exposure to waves and long-shore current, not exclusively by water depth. The preliminary analysis of the drone data suggests that the unmanned aerial vehicles can be highly useful in the mapping of shallow, clear-water marine habitats.

Abstract:

This poster presentation highlights how data-rich film and music can be through two illustrative analyses. First, we investigate how variables grounded in film theory could be predictive of the success of Oscar-nominated films (in the category of Best Picture). Measures of success investigated include winning Best Picture, critics’ ratings, and popular ratings. In the second analysis, I apply clustering techniques to data from the Spotify API to investigate several musical elements and how those elements are shared between songs.

Abstract:

The Thriving Quotient has been a recent method to measure academic, social, and psychological components of a student’s college experience. These components include engaged learning, academic determination, positive perspective, social connectedness, diverse citizenship, sense of community, spirituality, and campus involvement, among other factors. For this project, preliminary Thriving Quotient data for SLU students was examined. Hierarchical clustering, with Ward linkage, was used to identify clusters of students who “thrive” (or not) in different ways. These clusters, or groups, are then linked back to retention and other data to investigate the relationships between “thriving” in different ways and success at SLU.

Abstract:

Over the summer, I had the wonderful opportunity of pursuing a creative project through the Tanner Fellowship with Paul Doty, who works in Special Collections in ODY Library. Special Collections is a room in which important and unique copies of books are kept safe. These books are like artifacts, and I was lucky enough to practice my technical writing skills by creating a descriptive bibliography of books on canoes.

As an environmental studies and English combined major, this project contributed to not only my writing practice in fields I was unfamiliar with, but also to my environmental studies knowledge. Reading about canoes related to a class I had taken with Pete Pettengill entitled “Recreation Policy,” where we learned about U.S. policy regarding to protecting and conserving land for public use.

Canoes also related another environmental class I took with Glenn Harris, “Foundations of Environmental Thought.” This class focused heavily on environmental philosophy, and I found many of the books I read during my fellowship to contribute to my ideas and thoughts regarding the philosophical aspect of the environment. We learned about protection of the commons and how important it is to limit private ownership in regards to land.

This issue is discussed by Christopher Angus in Reflections From Canoe Country in the context of rowing. He writes how rowers got sued for being on private land, yet rowing is how Angus connects most deeply with the environment, which fuels his yearning to protect it. In many of my environmental classes, we talk about how if people are not interacting with the environment, they do not care to protect it. If they have no personal experience with nature, they do not prioritize it or educate themselves on it.

This really shows you that a creative book filled with personal essays can be extremely valuable to scientific knowledge, yet people do not value that form of information. I did because I took both Intro and Advanced Creative Nonficition, and I could certainly see myself writing in that genre about environmental issues. Clearly, the problem is that no one cares or understands. Creative nonfiction, in my opinion, is the perfect solution. Besides, Rachel Carson, who wrote Silent Spring and sparked the U.S. environmental movement, was an English major. This shows that a combination of both these fields is extremely important in saving the environment.

This fellowship also contributed to my path to a professional career. It showed me that I really do love the meticulous work of creating a descriptive bibliography; I have always loved citations. I have also always been a stickler for the small details. I have always enjoyed thinking critically and creatively. I love reading and writing and hope to do so for the rest of my life. That’s why this fellowship with Paul Doty was the perfect match for my time here at St. Lawrence University.

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION The Indigenous community of Akwesasne, located partially in Ontario, Canada and northern New York State, is down wind and down river from three aluminum foundries. Pollution from these foundries has plagued the community since the early 1960s. While previous research conducted in the community focused on direct and indirect health effects of pollutants found in the area such as Polychlorinated Biphenyls, it lacks community perceptions of health. This research aims to empower the community by letting the people speak about health. The research examines the extent to which social and environmental factors are taken into consideration when assessing health on the Akwesasne Mohawk Reservation. METHODS The research employs in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of community leaders. Interview questions pertained to health trends, the environment, and consideration of pollution. In addition to qualitative interviews, content analysis of documents related to health and the environment from the United States Government and the Tribal Government was conducted to better understand portrayal of health information. RESULTS Community perspectives indicate that environmental pollution effects health through multiple pathways: direct exposure, exposure to contaminated fish, loss of fishing, fear of contaminated fish, soil, water, and air, and loss of culture. Targeted public health efforts have been employed by the community to combat the various health issues that arise from each pathway. Efforts include fishing advisories, public awareness, cultural restoration programs, and health awareness publications. CONCLUSION This research highlights the importance of targeted public health efforts and the need to understand how environmental pollution effects health in many different ways. Environmental justice issues have greatly impacted the Akwesasne Mohawk population, however the community has worked had to develop strategies for better health among its people.

Abstract:

Amyloids are proteins that when aggregated form large insoluble fibers characterized by their cross-beta sheet structure. While these proteins are often implicated in human neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, many organisms make functional amyloids. These have been studied in bacterial biofilms and are known to aid in stability and structure. Archaea also form biofilms, however, they have not been researched as extensively. Functional amyloids have been identified in the archaeon Haloferax volcanii. The aim of this study is to isolate and purify amyloid fibers from H. volcanii to elucidate more about their composition and structure. Isolation is done through differential centrifugation and sonication, following previous research by Heather Raimer ‘17. Sonicating the cells releases the amyloid fibers from the cells, which are detected using Thioflavin T (ThT) assays. Low-speed centrifugation allows for the removal of cellular debris. Ultracentrifugation then isolates the larger fibers from suspension. Lastly, tube SDS-PAGE is used to purify the amyloids from contaminating proteins because they do not enter the gel. Current research is being done to deaggregate the fibers into monomers using formic acid. The depolymerized monomers can then be resuspended and sent off to a collaborator for sequencing.

Abstract:

Occupancy Modeling of North American Porcupines within Replanted and Natural Succession Forests within Northern New York

Donovan K. Spaulding*, Katherine E. Andy and Erika L. Barthelmess

Department of Biology, St Lawrence University, Canton, NY 13617 USA.

Many factors influence whether an animal will occupy a habitat patch. The interactions between species may directly impact each other’s presence, however, other factors may also play a role in determining species distributions across a landscape. The aim of this study was to examine the occupancy of the North American Porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) within reforested pine plantations and natural successional forests to test for habitat preference. We used camera traps deployed randomly throughout study locations to measure porcupine presence using minimally invasive techniques. The presence of fishers was used to predict porcupine presence and abundance within a forest. Porcupines were used as a focal species to look at a larger question of animal distribution within the Algonquin to Adirondack habitat corridor. Landscape variables were collected using GIS to test for correlation between covariates and porcupine presence within a forest habitat. Preliminary findings suggest that porcupine presence is correlated with mixed hardwood forests. Understanding the roles of landscape variables such as road density in determining porcupine distributions throughout a fragmented landscape will provide a necessary information in future development and conservation agendas for the North American Porcupine in Northern New York. More research is required to supply necessary information about larger spatial scale animal distribution patterns within an animal corridor, and provides an avenue of future research.

Key Words: Porcupine, camera trap, occupancy modeling, species richness, succession

Abstract:

Heat maps are commonly used in the field of sports analytics. They can be a quick and easy way to read plays and find hot spots in activity. The goal of this project was to make the heat map for data from the National Hockey League (NHL) more appropriate for the visual assessment of information about shots and their location. We utilized data from recent NHL seasons and adjusted the map to ensure that visual assessment of shot impact was appropriate. To do this we adjusted the width of the rink for the heat map to match the probability of a goal from that location. The heat map then has perspective which allows the viewers eye to focus on the more important/useful probability spikes on the ice. To emphasize the perspective, we created an atmosphere around the map to define the rink. After completing the project, we applied it to large data sets to assure accuracy.

Abstract:

The self-reference effect is the tendency to retain information better if it is related to the self. Oakes and Onyper (2017) reported a similar memory-enhancing effect when participants simply moved words toward their bodies compared to away from them. In the current study, we examined whether movement toward a virtual self (i.e., selfie) would induce enhanced recognition, self-association, and positivity ratings of previously-rated neutral personality traits. Participants used keyboard arrows to move the traits towards a picture of themselves or a stranger. Enhanced self-association and positivity ratings were not found; however, increased recognition was found for traits moved towards the self. In a second study, pictures of glass paperweights were moved toward a picture of the self, a stranger, or a type of building (e.g., a church). Participants rated paperweights moved toward the stranger as less beautiful than those moved toward the self, suggesting a minimization of objects owned by another. These findings suggest that an association with the self, initiated via movement toward a virtual self, can change how participants rate, view, and remember stimuli.

Keywords: self reference effect, self-association, recognition, memory, movement

Abstract:

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are among the most commonly occurring notifiable conditions in the U.S. Adults ages 18-24 account for 50% of new STI infections annually, which is also the age group that primarily attends St. Lawrence University. St. Lawrence students were surveyed to determine STI screening rates and attitudes towards STI testing on the SLU campus via Qualtrics. Tukey HSD tests were then used to determine if there were significant relationships between demographics/attitudes and testing behaviors on campus. Among the 195 respondents, women at St. Lawrence were significantly more likely to seek out STI screenings than their male counterparts (p < 0.05). Similarly, senior students were most likely to both seek out and be aware of STI related services than students of other class years at St. Lawrence (p < 0.05). Students who reported "always" using protection during sexual encounters were significantly less likely to receive STI screenings than those who "almost always" use protection (p < 0.05). Among the most reported barriers students reported that deterred them from seeking STI screenings were fear of judgement from peers, embarrassment, cost, and fear of asking practitioners. Additionally, it is evident that there are misconceptions regarding the frequency of STIs at St. Lawrence University based on 69% of students reporting that they do not feel at risk for an STI despite 50% of young adults in the US acquiring an STI by the time they are 25. The need for STI testing for all sexually active people cannot be overstated, and St. Lawrence University students are generally unaware of and underutilize STI-related resources available to them based on the findings of this study.

Abstract:

Palaeostorm research attempts to reconstruct previous climates by using sediment grain sizes as a proxy for high-energy precipitation events preserved within the geologic record. With current extreme storm events being attributed to changes in climate circulation (Trenberth et al., 2015), identification of cyclic patterns and storm magnitude throughout geologic time is needed for hazard preparation. Grain-size analysis resolves high-energy sediment transport events better than proxies such as magnetic susceptibility and loss on ignition sequences (Parris et al., 2009), allowing for identification of the timing and magnitude of Holocene palaeostorm events. With data gathered from Heart Lake and Moose Lake in the Adirondack Park in northern New York, palaeostorm events linked to particle size distribution are revealed. Sediment cores were taken from the depocenters of each lake and analyzed for grain size, grain composition, distribution, and other proxies using loss on ignition, composition identification, and a three-step process removing biogenic silica and organics (Gray et al., 2010). Overall, the percent of clastics decreased as grain size increased in several excursions in both the Heart Lake and Moose Lake datasets. Two events that coincide between the two basins, occurring at roughly 5,770 BP and 2,500 BP, are likely palaeostorm events that altered the landscape, causing a flow scenario that is reflected as an increase in grain size. Additionally, both lake basins show immediate change post glaciation in grain size and composition; likely linked to an increase in vegetation. Knowledge of the timing of these previous events, as well as the likelihood of stronger storm events in times of climatic fluctuations (Knox, 2000) can aid in solutions to probable flooding in the Adirondack Park and surrounding region.

Abstract:

Navigating through large-scale environments is a complex task; for example, there can be many ways to travel between locations, some more efficient than others. Previous research suggests that people who use varied routes and shortcuts rather than fixed routes are more efficient navigators (Boone, Gong, & Hegarty, 2018). In our research, we investigated if people who use more divergent thinking (i.e., tend to think about and solve problems from multiple perspectives) are also more successful and efficient navigators. St. Lawrence University students (N = 103) reported their perceived navigation skills (Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale) and strategies (Wayfinding Strategies Scale). To measure divergent thinking, participants completed the Alternate Uses Test in which they produced multiple original uses for six different common objects (e.g., a newspaper can be used to start a fire). Contrary to our prediction, preliminary data analyses suggest no relationship between divergent thinking and subjective reports of navigation ability.

Study 1 relied on subjective measures of navigation, which may not accurately reflect individuals’ navigation skills. In Study 2, we measured the relationship between divergent thinking and navigation ability using objective measures. Participants again completed the Alternate Uses Test in addition to tasks that measure navigation skills including mental rotation, spatial visualization, spatial IQ, and working memory. Data collection for Study 2 is ongoing. These studies will help us identify predictors of individual differences in navigation ability as well as the potential importance of creativity in spatial problem solving.

Abstract:

The south African schools act of 1996 was implemented to ensure all South African citizens had access to education, making it the first education act to put an end to segregated schooling in the country. Education attainment has increased over the years for the different race groups, however whites have had a smaller change in average years of education attainment as compared to non-whites. The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent to which the South African Schools Act of 1996 has decreased the education attainment gap between races that was created during the apartheid regime. To carry out this investigation, data obtained from South African National Household Surveys is used. Results find that overall education attainment has increased after the policy implementation. By running a difference in differences model, results indicate that the policy had a positive impact on decreasing the education gap between whites and non-whites. Although education attainment has increased, the quality of education provided in predominantly non-white areas remains to be an issue. Policies should investigate ways of increasing education quality in specific areas through the provision of quality teacher training, enough learning facilities to decrease the high teacher to pupil ratio, as well as providing the same resources in non-white communities that are found in white communities such as after school programs.

Abstract:

College administrators increasingly recognize the importance of creating campus environments that evoke feelings of personal safety. The present study assessed the interaction of gender identity and perceived physical and emotional safety. A mapping measure asked participants to highlights areas of the St. Lawrence University campus that they found emotionally pleasing and safe. Subsequently, participants identified where they felt the most physically and emotionally supported. Lastly, participants were asked to identify campus spaces that were supportive, pleasant, and well-traveled. Map results showed that the highest levels of perceived safety were in the center of campus and indicated that males and females may respond to the campus differently. This was consistent with the hypothesis that higher levels of surviellability would result in higher levels of perceived safety. Text responses indicated that higher levels of lighting and accessibility to social support programs like the advocates promoted feelings of safety and security.

Abstract:

In modern financial markets, predicting asset value with speed and accuracy is the ultimate goal of algorithmic trading. As market analysis has transitioned to algorithms and analytics, identification of entrance and exit positions for financial trades has risen to the forefront of asset trading strategies.

The price movement of a financial asset can be examined using a variety of statistical indicators which identify trends, momentum, and volatility. Technical indicators, such as moving average crossovers and the relative strength index analyze historical data to predict potential bullish and bearish signals. It is common trading practice to incorporate multiple indicators to develop a financial thesis for determining asset trades that will yield a profit. Utilizing algorithms allows traders to implement and execute their financial thesis quickly and accurately.

This program backtests and optimizes three technical indicators on historical intraday minute bar asset prices to execute trades which identify effective indicator parameters yielding the highest profit for a given equity.

Abstract:

The North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) spends the majority of the year foraging for food alone in trees, but is expected to share dens during the winter months. Due to their solitary behavior during the summer months, if porcupines share dens, they may select to share with genetic relatives. Sharing a den with a genetic relative would allow for the propagation of shared genes whereas sharing a den with a stranger would not provide an evolutionary benefit. We investigated the winter denning behavior of the North American porcupine by extracting DNA from porcupine feces collected at dens sites, and comparing amplified microsatellites to determine if samples came from related or stranger individuals. We assessed samples collected over five months to determine the genetic relatedness of the individuals living the in dens. Evaluating the denning behavior of the North American porcupine furthers our understanding of evolutionary benefits the species may have developed to improve fitness and expands our knowledge of the behavior tendencies of the species.

Abstract:

Fibroblast growth factor 2, also known as FGF basic, is a signaling protein that plays a variety of physiological roles in the body. Of particular interest in recent studies is its ability to promote angiogenesis following blood vessel injury. However, it is a labile protein that tends to break down quickly under the stressors of the human body. Previous research has determined, in silico, several rationally-designed mutant proteins that are predicted to be more stable than the wild type. This project seeks to create these mutants and compare their stability in vitro to FGF2. A bacterial expression system is used to create the protein, which is then purified using chromatographic methods. After purification, the linear extrapolation method (Vivian and Callis 2001) is used to experimentally determine the change in Gibbs free energy of unfolding for the protein. In this method, the unfolding of a protein is followed by monitoring intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence as it is exposed to increasing concentrations of chaotrope. These data can be mathematically transformed into an experimental ΔG value. The data have demonstrated that the trend in stability matches the computational model, with the mutants known as FGFbase (N71E, E78K, K86E, T112E) and FGFrecp (N53E, K68E, R102E, K111E, K117E) being more stable under chemical denaturing conditions than the wild type FGF2. Further research is being conducted to probe more mutants for their stabilities and assess their relative biological activities using cell cultures.

Abstract:

The goal of this project is to detail the necessary elements of a data analysis report and to explain how to write about them effectively. The necessary elements of a report are: 1. A specific story; 2. The results and conclusions of the analysis; 3. A discussion of the analysis; 4. The methods used for the analysis and how the data was collected; and 5. The context of the study. Each of these elements contributes to an audience’s ability to understand the analysis and its significance easily and completely. The paper also addresses how to format and structure these elements to create a cohesive, effective and impactful report. In response to Jane Miller’s format for data analysis reports, the GEE: Generalization, Example, Exception, the paper suggests reversing the first two components to create the format EGE: Example, Generalization, Exception. Due to evidence in psychology, beginning with an anecdote or story, i.e. a specific narrative that creatively exemplifies the results, is more effective for immediately engaging and convincing an audience of an analysis’s results.

Abstract:

My project focuses on the differences between middle and high school social studies classrooms, and how teachers need to adapt their teaching styles when discussing the same content for different grade levels of students. When I did my student teaching during the fall of my senior year, I struggled to make my lessons comprehendable for 10th graders to understand. I was used to college level thinking and learning, and I needed to re-learn to think and teach at the high school level again. Since my time student teaching, I have spent time working as a substitute teacher in many middle school classrooms, and I have realized that as a potential future middle school teacher, I need to learn to further adapt my lessons so they are understandable at the middle school level. To do this, my semester has consisted of doing online and book based research on the differences between middle school and high school students, teaching styles and practices of social studies teachers at the two levels, what areas of history are the most difficult for each level to comprehend, and seeing how the different levels of social studies are similar and different in terms of the curriculum, skills, facts, etc. that are required to be taught and mastered. I will use the information gathered through my preliminary research to discuss my findings up until that point and how I plan to use that information to complete my overall research. The additional research needed to complete my research project will be completed through the use of surveys and interviews with middle school students, high school students, and middle and high school teachers once my IRB proposal has been officially approved. During my poster presentation and discussion, I will be going into detail about how I plan to conduct that research and how I plan to complete my surveys and interviews. The information gathered through this research project will be used to help me learn how to be an effective social studies teacher at all secondary grade levels of social studies education.

Abstract:

The aim of my SYE study is to broadly examine environmental initiatives and awareness in contemporary urban India, specifically the metropolitan city of Mumbai in western India. In March I had the opportunity to conduct an observational field study of residential and public architecture as well as public environmental art in Mumbai. Throughout the research trip, I noticed prominently displayed wall art, public signage, and open spaces that promoted sustainability and clean living. I was able to go on architectural tours and speak to local architects/sustainable architects to learn what India’s priorities were in relation to sustainability and conserving the environment. Based on my first-hand study, I was able to compare individual and private groups to institutions/government to see where the most initiative is coming from and how effective it is. My study suggests that Mumbai has developed a strong citizen’s movement related to environmental consciousness and that people seem to be responding to climate change a lot quicker both on a governmental and individual level because they are directly being affected by smog and other environmental stressors.

Key Words: sustainability, architecture, art, climate change, environmental awareness

Abstract:

Released in October 2009 by Riot Games, League of Legends is a multiplayer online battle arena game. Typically played in teams of five, each player picks a champion to take on either the role of Top, Middle, Jungler, AD Carry or Support. The over 100 champions in the game can be broadly categorized into male, female and monster. For the purpose of our research, we wanted to determine if there was a systematic gender bias in the way the male and female characters are created and played, making one gender always a better option to play a specific role. Using linear models, we used game statistics from 2015 gender and role to predict the estimates of 16 individual statistics for each champion. We then analyzed this data to see if there were any dramatic differences in the statistics between males and females.

Abstract:

Amid national discourse about voting systems in the United States, Maine’s 2nd Congressional District made history with an election decided by ranked-choice voting. Coupled with a tournament-style series of polls conducted by fans of the television network Nickelodeon, this raises questions as to how voting tabulation methods can sway election outcomes. This paper seeks answers to these questions via original survey data. Through two separate rounds of polling, data were collected to gain insight into Nickelodeon fans’ preference of cartoons airing in the 1990s and early 2000s. Multiple distinct tabulation methods are used to count these votes and determine which Nicktoons are fans’ definite favorites.

Abstract:

Biofilms are a common structural conformation utilized by bacteria, which provide strength, rigidity and protection against common factors that bacteria encounter. The main components are well characterized; biofilms are primarily composed of bacterial cells wrapped in an extracellular polymeric matrix, containing extracellular DNA (eDNA), polysaccharides and proteins, including amyloid aggregates. In the body, biofilms are associated with various types of infections, that make them more resistant to antibiotic treatment. This therefore creates a need for a better understanding of biofilm structure and development. In this study, we characterized biofilm maturation in strain #29 of the soil bacterium Microbacterium oryzae using the Live/Dead BacLight Bacterial Viability kit. Biofilm production was analyzed using crystal violet staining. Biofilms were grown in a chambered coverglass with liquid R2A media. After the growth period, the proportion of live to dead cells within the biofilm was analyzed using Syto9 and propidium iodide and confocal microscopy. Mature biofilms exhibited much more developed and substantial net like conformations, potentially related to the higher rates of biofilm production associated with established structures. Our previous research has demonstrated the presence of eDNA in strains of Microbacterium oryzae and the reducing effect that DNase has on biofilm production. The effect of eDNA on biofilm formation in this strain will be studied by introducing DNase to developing cultures. These biofilms will be analyzed using the same BacLight Bacterial Viability kit and confocal microscopy. This visualization of biofilm development and analysis of the Live/Dead proportion of cells in maturing biofilms will lead to a greater characterization of biofilm formation for this soil bacterium.

Abstract:

Éveriste Galois was a French mathematician, born shortly after the end of the French Revolution. Galois is often credited for discovering group theory as well as being known for his political activism. This project dives into his life and the influence the French revolution had on it, as well as understanding his contributions to mathematics.

Abstract:

Neurodegenerative conditions, such as stroke and Alzheimer’s Disease, are characterized by nerve cells losing the ability to function normally. These conditions continue to increase in prevalence in the United States, especially as the population ages. Therefore, there is a need to develop therapeutics that can treat or help prevent these diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and free radicals are common byproducts of metabolic processes in the cell, yet they can cause damage to many molecules in a cell. Due to their ability to cause damage, endogenous systems, such as the enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase, are utilized by the body to break down these molecules. One of the key components of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative conditions is oxidative stress: a build-up of ROS, RNS, or free radicals that exceeds the capacity of the endogenous systems to break them down. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) have catalase-mimetic and superoxide dismutase-mimetic activity, allowing them to break down excess ROS and making them a good candidate to treat neurodegenerative conditions. These nanoceria are able to cross the blood brain barrier and form a protein corona, composed of lipids and proteins that adsorb to its surface, when traveling throughout the body. Previous studies support nanoceria’s potential as a therapeutic, however, other studies have reported that nanoceria can have toxic effects. We hypothesize that the differences in findings may be due to the synthesis of the nanoparticle and how that impacts the protein corona. To investigate this hypothesis, three differentially synthesized nanoceria were tested. In order to understand the role of serum proteins, nanoceria were pre-incubated in 1% mouse serum for 30 minutes at 37 oC. Then, the catalase-mimetic activity of the nanoceria was assessed. In addition, potentially harmful oxidase activity was also measured. Finally, HT22 cells were incubated with the differentially synthesized nanoceria to determine if there were any effects on cellular structure. Pre-incubation with serum did not affect the catalase-mimetic activity of nanoceria coated with citrate or both citrate and EDTA, but the catalase-mimetic activity decreased in nanoceria coated with just EDTA. Further, pre-incubation with serum did not induce harmful oxidase-mimetic activity of nanoceria coated with citrate, however, oxidase-mimetic activity increased in nanoceria coated with EDTA and both EDTA and citrate. Previous research in the lab suggests that the changes in oxidase-mimetic activity are artifacts of adding serum to the oxidase assay. However, the difference in the catalase-mimetic activity suggests that the preparation of the nanoparticles can modulate the extensiveness of their biological activity. Cell culture experiments are ongoing.

Abstract:

The stigmatization of people who are diagnosed with eating disorders (ED) is comparable to other mental-illness diagnoses. The present study attempts to reduce this stigmatization by using The Minimal Group Paradigm, a procedure that produces preferential treatment toward those persons placed in one’s own group (in-group favoritism). Participants were divided into teams based on a non-meaningful task (i.e., dot counting) and read short vignettes about people in their in- and out-groups, one of which contained a description of someone with an eating disorder. Measures of explicit stigma were not impacted by whether the person with ED was on their team or not. However, an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was sensitive to group membership: those placed on the same team as the person with ED demonstrated a small but positive association with EDs compared to those who were not on the same team. This finding suggests that shared group identities may either prevent the activation of negative stereotypes or overpower them with positive associations stemming from one’s positive regard for the self.

Abstract:

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes/e-cigs) were originally developed with the intent to help smoking addicts quit or to offer a slightly healthier method of nicotine inhalation with the use of vaporization (vaping) instead of tobacco combustion. However, there has been a recent shift in focus from the tobacco industry towards targeting a younger population of non-smoking individuals. This is not a strategy for reduction of cigarette use, but rather a way to trap a new generation of potential addicts. Among e-cig users, this could yield negative health impacts similar to those of cigarette smoking later in life. From general observation, e-cigarette use has become increasingly common on the St. Lawrence University campus. A survey was conducted to investigate these trends and the stigmas regarding e-cigarette use within the student population. General findings suggest high rates of use among students, which was backed by a strong social acceptance of e-cigarettes. Even more concerning was a disregard for policies against indoor use of electronic cigarettes. This information was then used to educate St. Lawrence University students of the dangers of vaping and to communicate these observations to the Safety Committee to promote a stricter policy regarding indoor use.

Abstract:

Is there evidence of racism in calls made by soccer referees? If so, is it possible to prove a cause-and-effect relationship? Soccer is a universal, wide-world sport that anyone can easily participate. Thanks to this, most nations are part of the soccer community and compete against each other. Unfortunately, while such soccer competitions must retain impartiality and unbiasedness, numerous factors can sabotage soccer matches. One potential factor is a biased call made by a racist soccer referee. One research project elected to study this through crowdsourcing with analysts from different professions. Surprisingly, using identical data did not guarantee an identical outcome. Each of the 29 analysis teams used their own statistical method and approach to address the question. We examine these methods while also presenting our own analysis of the data. In this project, we look at the presence of racist referees while also addressing how easy it is for one set of data to point to different conclusions.

Abstract:

This project presents a new kind of self-securing file. The files each contain two sections, one section containing all of the content, and the second section a program written, in Python, by the creator of the file. This program controls access to the file. The file type uses a special text editor that allows the user to create both sections. The program written in the files can use all of the Python programming language. For example, the user could create a new file type for files that are designed to only be read once and then self-destruct. Another type of file could have a delayed access, where the user was not allowed to read it until a specific date and time.

Abstract:

Bathymetry and Habitat Transitions at Laughland Beach, Jamaica

Jamaica, the third largest of the Greater Antilles islands (~11,000 km²), forms the easternmost, exposed part of Central American Nicaragua Rise, where the Caribbean plate rubs against the North American plate along a major sinistral strike-slip fault that is associated with strong earthquakes. The goal of this study was to analyze and identify the composition of carbonate sediment and benthic habitat types along transects on the northern coast of the island. Six reef-perpendicular transects were mapped at an angle of 20° N from the Laughland beach, a moderate-to-low energy lagoon. Depending on the distance from the shoreline to reef crest, the transects were from 60 to 350 meters in length, with 150 meters between the transects. The depth was measured every 30 meters along each transect, and sediment samples (n=17) were collected every ~100 m; the latitude/longitude measurement was taken at every sampling location. Bathymetric measurements show that the lagoon is very shallow (30 to 150 cm), with the coarsest sediments deposited along the beach and on the reef flat. A small embayment with mangroves has the finest sediments in the entire study area, consisting mostly of mixed, well-sorted fine carbonate-siliciclastic muddy sand. In the western part of the lagoon, the riverine input results in brackish conditions (salinity 20-25‰) and habitat dominated by turf grasses, green algae and sparse seagrass patches covering a sandy to gravelly bottom. Shrimp mounds occupy the central part of the lagoon where they occur within larger seagrass meadows with abundant sea urchins. Preliminary results indicate that the western portion of the lagoon, as evidenced by the common presence of coarse sand and gravel, is characterized by a higher wave and water-energy due to a combination of wave reworking, long-shore current and river inflow. The mangroves prevent fine sediment from winnowing in the eastern part of the lagoon and serve as important nurseries for smaller fish.

Abstract:

The current study aims to examine how victim and officer race and stereotypicality play a role in the perceptions of guilt and intentions of a police officer in a shooting of an unarmed civilian who was acting aggressively towards another officer. Two experiments were conducted in which participants were asked to imagine that they were an assistant district attorney who had to decide whether or not to bring charges against the officer who shot and killed the civilian by reading over testimony. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the race and racial stereotypicality of the victim (white, black atypical, black stereotypical, shown as a photograph) as well as told the race of the officer (black or white). The results suggested that the race of the participant answering the questions was the strongest predictor of the guilt of the officer and the likelihood that he misrepresented the facts of the case. White officers were also more likely to be found guilty overall. In the second experiment, we manipulated the race and racial stereotypicality of the officer (white, black atypical, black stereotypical, shown as a photograph) and victim race (black or white). This experiment yielded similar results: The race of the participant contributed most to how the situation was assessed. The results of these experiments show an in-group bias, where white participants tended to side with the officer more than the victim regardless of the race of either, while those who were black tended to side with the victim regardless of the race of the victim or officer. It is possible that the wide publicity of police officers fatally shooting unarmed, primarily black, individuals in the line of duty have contributed to these results. Further research suggestions and implications are discussed.

Keywords: race, stereotypical, victim, police, officer, bias

Abstract:

Gerrymandering is an issue that arises when states unfairly divide the state into congressional districts. A district must fit within three criteria: equal populations, contiguous, and compact. The compactness of each district is the main complication when it comes to mappings. We will discuss mathematical measures of compactness. In addition, we will discuss how mathematics has been used in recent court cases involving gerrymandering to help solve the issue at hand.

Abstract:

Anthraquinone is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and its derivatives have appeared in many anticancer chemotherapeutic drugs, such as Doxorubicin, Mitomycin, and many other biologically active compounds. The anthraquinone moiety may act as a DNA intercalator and its derivatives can slide between nucleotide bases forming covalent bonds with DNA to act as cytotoxic molecules by stopping the cell cycle within various cell types. This project is to expand the variety of anthraquinone derivatives. The multistep reaction started with the Diels-Alder reaction forming the anthraquinone molecule. The Diels-Alder reaction allows the formation of a six-membered ring by creating two sigma bonds, and has been utilized in many reactions of organic synthesis. The double Diels-Alder reaction utilizing myrcene as diene and benzoquinone as dienophile will form two six-membered rings flanking quinone. This multi-step synthesis can be used to generate derivates based on the multiplicity and variability of the functional groups, be editing and expanding the variety of side functional groups may cause more interactions with DNA backbone or nucleotides for potential pharmaceutical interest. In particular, we are trying to synthesize an anthraquinone that is flanked by two piperazine moiety that we hypothesize may increase the affinity of DNA binding.

Abstract:

Geology is a field-based science that focuses heavily on the discovery, preservation, and extraction of natural resources. Many professional geoscience associations have adopted guidelines for standards of responsible stewardship of the Earth. These guidelines are applied to all geologic activities, ranging from research to industrial land use. The geosciences provide the opportunity to teach concepts that are central to responsible stewardship of land and resources, but environmental stewardship is not yet widely integrated into college geology curricula.

Since it is especially important that geology adopt ethical principles guiding land use, this study was conducted to evaluate how aware students and faculty are of ethical environmental issues that might occur in their work as professional geologist. Topics like natural resource disputes, appropriate land use, water and mineral rights, or the environmental impacts of resource extraction are issues that surround the work of many professional geologists.

In order to better understand what role undergraduate education plays in creating awareness regarding the impacts of land-based, physical disturbances associated with geologic activity on the environment, we reviewed ethical guidelines of professional geologic societies and surveyed faculty in geology departments of NY State. The colleges surveyed were both private and state institutions and offer a Geology or Earth Science major as part of a 4-year program.

We sent out a Qualtrics survey via email, and out of 309 requests, 67 geoscience faculty responded. 69% of professors rated student concern for environmental issues as “a great deal” or “a lot” on a five-point scale, and 98% of professors agreed that it was appropriate to bring concern for land-based environmental impacts into the classroom. 50% of professors “agreed” or “strongly agreed” that students left their geology program with a well-rounded understanding of the issues they will face as a professional geologist. Our results suggest that the faculty of Geology programs in NY State are aware and concerned about the role of environmental stewardship in the geosciences, but how these concepts are taught varies throughout departments. Moving forward, it is important to incorporate concepts of environmental ethics and stewardship of resources into geoscience educations, in order to prepare students for careers that will increasingly deal with the repercussions of the extraction and development of natural resources.

Abstract:

Several barriers to achieving a high standard of dental care and oral health have previously been identified in small rural communities. Lower dentist to patient ratios, lack of public transportation, and a larger uninsured population potentially make accessing dental care more difficult in rural areas. The purpose of this research project was to characterize the oral health of the rural and generally lower-income communities in St. Lawrence County to determine which barriers, if any, are present. A survey relating to dental care was administered online and received 215 responses (n=215). Survey respondents were predominately female (83.26%) with dental insurance (67.44%). In terms of dental hygiene, although most respondents reported brushing their teeth twice a day (64.25%), nearly a quarter (23.32%) of respondents admitted to rarely flossing. In addition, 24.41% of respondents answered that they had forgone a dental visit when it was needed, with the most common reason for not seeking care being expense. Finally, when asked if dental hygiene was important to them and their families, only 74.77% of respondents strongly agreed, while 10.75% somewhat or strongly disagreed, indicating an area to be targeted by educational strategies. By characterizing the oral health and dental hygiene practices of the local population, we have identified existing barriers to receiving care in order to develop public health measures aimed at improving dental care in St. Lawrence County and similar rural communities.

Abstract:

Rainy Johannessen

SYE: Racial Hypertension Disparities Amongst SLU Students

1 April, 2019

If ethnic and racial disparities in hypertension (HTN) exists amongst the larger population of adults, then the diverse students of SLU might experience HTN differences according to their race/ethnicity. If SLU students vary in HTN according to their race/ethnicity, then genetics or the cultures associated could be one of the many underlying factors in the development of HTN. According to the Center for Disease Control, about 75 million American adults (32%) have high blood pressure (hypertension). HTN is considered one of the leading causes of death attributed to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and the prevalence differs across racial/ethnic groups, with African Americans being disproportionately affected. The risk factors for HTN include age, socioeconomic status (SES), stress, quality and access to health care. Particularly, the relationship between the exposure to discrimination and blood pressure levels among African American men differs based on SES. However, the underlying causes for these differences are not completely understood despite the amount of literature published on this matter. Research is necessary to differentiate these social environments and identify how they combine with each other to affect health over the course of life. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine HTN rates, amongst St. Lawrence University (SLU) students, in order to investigate how social and cultural influences impact racial/ethnic HTN-related health disparities. In order to investigate racial hypertension disparities amongst SLU students, the students filled out a questionnaire followed by a 24-hour food recall, then had their blood pressure measured and classified. It was found that blood pressure is lower in female (~126/80 mmHg) than male students (~132/82 mmHg). Typically, individuals consuming large quantities of unhealthy foods high in sodium have elevated blood pressure (SBP:120-139 mmHg, or DBP:80-89 mmHg). Additionally, it is evident that the lack of adequate exercise (less than 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week) in addition to a poor diet, is linked to Stage 1 HTN (SBP:140-159 mmHg, or DBP:90-99 mmHg) in SLU college students.

Abstract:

Each year some teams in the National Football League (NFL) improve and some decline and predicting these changes is the goal of this project.  In the NFL, there are 32 teams split up into 8 divisions, with 4 teams in each division.  The goal of this analysis is to predict the order in which each division will finish.  Since the only thing we are interested in is predicting the order teams will finish and not their exact wins and losses, I am going to use ordinal regression to do this.  Ordinal regression will generate an “order” that these teams are expected to finish.  I am using data from pro-football-reference.com for this model.  As predictors I will use, the previous season win percentage, red zone percentage (offensively and defensively), turnover ratio, and the upcoming years strength of schedule.  This model will include data from the previous 3 NFL seasons to generate predictions.

Abstract:

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is an important pillar of modern cosmology. The CMB variations, or anisotropies, and the related angular power spectrum are used to model the composition and geometry of the universe. This paper focused on coding with the HEALPix package to recreate the results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. Power spectra that reflected the first peak were successfully created. However, the derived power spectra were a poor match to the accepted power spectrum. Thus the WMAP data is not a good choice for a simple recreation of the accepted power spectrum. This was because the cleaned maps were smoothed to too large an angular value and the uncleaned maps contained too much galactic foreground contamination.

Abstract:

The extent to which one deliberately selects, edits and posts content to social media, particularly selfies, may be a reflection of how one feels towards their current representation of self. Individuals with defensive self-esteem (i.e., those who espouse strong positive feelings of self-worth but whose unconscious feelings toward the self are less positive) compensate for their fragile feelings of self-worth by engaging in a wide variety of self-protective and self-enhancing behaviors. Thus, we hypothesized that defensive individuals would engage in increased levels of self-enhancing social media behaviors (e.g., deliberate selection, editing and posting of selfies) compared to individuals with other self-esteem types. Surprisingly, defensive individuals reported using significantly less intentional strategies when selecting and posting selfies. We suspect these results reflect an attempt to avoid appearing vulnerable. That is, defensive individuals may be reticent to self-report behaviors that are perceived as a character flaw, such as elevated self-promotional editing behaviors. Future research should seek to confirm this suspicion with measurements of actual posting behaviors rather than self-reported behaviors.

Keywords: selfies, self-esteem, defensive, posting behaviors

Abstract:

Skeletal sands composed of fragments of calcareous red and green algae, corals, mollusks, and foraminifera, predominate in moderate- and high-energy shallow-water lagoons of of Roátan Island, Honduras. A total of 47 sediment samples, coupled with data on depth, habitat, and biota were collected from five different lagoons. Detailed beach-to-reef crest transects were studied in Sandy Bay and West End Beach; transects were 140m to 350m long, with depth measurements taken every 10m and sediment samples collected every 50m. A set of sieves was used to analyze the grain size distribution from each sample (>2mm, 1-2mm, 0.5-1mm, 0.125-0.5mm, >0.125mm). Petrographic analysis of 39 collected sediment samples was carried out on thin-section grain-mounts by counting 300 data points per slide. In Sandy Bay, major components include corals (27%), igneous/ metamorphic lithoclasts (19.6%), red algae (14.1%) and Halimeda (12.9%). Non-carbonate grains sourced from the island bedrock dominate the beach but become negligible 20-30 m into the lagoon. At the higher-energy West End Beach there is no siliciclastic poisoning, and major grains are corals (31.5%), red algae (25.5%), Halimeda (9.6%) and mollusks (8%). In both lagoons, grains are coarser and well-sorted along the beach and on the reef flat; the deepest parts of lagoons have finer grains that are poorly sorted. Carbon isotope values (δ13C) range from +0.7 to +4.1 ‰VPDB) and oxygen isotopes (δ18O) from −2.3 to −1.0 ‰VPDB, exhibiting strong positive correlation (R = +0.80). The results provide new insights into the relationship between carbonate sand composition, and energy levels (depth).

Abstract:

In this work, we evaluated the performance of a spectral chip, with the intention of using it as a spectrometer. Inexpensive and portable spectrometers are in demand for applications such as monitoring fruit ripening, and biosensing. Costing only $20, such spectral chips would be ideal for these applications. We show how the chip responds to different intensities of light.

Abstract:

This project will be centered around the history and foreign influence of Italian coffee culture on Europe and the US. Rome, Venice, and Naples have created booming sectors of their respective local economies based solely on the consumption of coffee, and giant industries have been established to support the demand. Illy and Lavazza are two corporations that receive household recognition for their products that can be found on every Italian street corner from Milan to Sicily. The success of these companies can be attributed to their own unique stories of branding in the ingrained Italian coffee culture that still remains prevalent today. These factors have lead to Italy becoming an essential coffee capital of the world and an important brand of the country’s image. However, along with this strong international image comes attraction of foreign investment; Starbucks has set their sights on Milan to expand their own American coffee empire and the result could change the long since perceived excellence of Italian coffee.

Abstract:

People form categories to organize information that may be recalled later. One way that we categorize objects is based on similarities such as size, shape, and color. In the current research, we focus on how people spatially categorize objects based on similarity of emotional valence and its impact on memory. Past research has shown that people tend to bias their memory for object location toward the center of a space (Huttenlocher, Hedges & Duncan, 1991) and that positive images are remembered to be farther up in space compared to negative images (Crawford, Margolies, Drake & Murphy, 2006). This latter result could be grounded in our use of spatial metaphors, such as “good things are up” and “bad things are down”. These spatial category effects tend to be stronger among people in a sad mood than people in a happy or neutral mood (Crawford, Twedt, & Drake, unpublished).

In the current study, we test if people in a sad mood are always more likely to form spatial categories, or only when remembering emotionally-relevant stimuli. Participants were randomly assigned to view pictures while listening to music meant to induce either a happy, sad, or neutral mood. Following the mood induction, participants viewed neutral words depicting either household objects (clustered toward the bottom of screen) or living things (clustered toward the top of screen). Participants then recalled the location of each word. If there is a mood effect, it suggests that participants in a sad mood depend on categories more than participants in a neutral or happy mood, regardless of valence of the stimulus. If we do not find support for a mood effect, then the tendency to rely on categories only occurs if the stimuli are mood related.

Abstract:

The Role of Pre-Switch Language Context and Spontaneity in Code-switching

The code-switching literature proposes that bilinguals experience time costs when switching between languages. Research suggests that bilinguals experience higher switch costs when they switch from a less dominant to a more dominant language than vice versa. Nevertheless, a large body of the code-switching literature has overlooked factors involved in everyday conditions in which language switches take place. Two factors that have been examined separately, but not in combination, are pre-switch language context (i.e., active production v. passive listening) and spontaneity (i.e., cued v. voluntary switching). In hopes of increasing the external validity of this work, we incorporated these factors in the study of code-switching for a sample group of native-English speaking college students who have completed intermediate Spanish coursework ( n=10 ), predicting that cued code switches would result higher switching costs (i.e., slower reaction times) as compared to voluntary switches. It was also predicted that an active pre-switch language context would also lead to slower reaction times because more language inhibition is required to switch. Preliminary results replicate previous findings and support the hypothesis that cued code switches are more costly than voluntary code switches. With regard to pre-switch language context, the overall results are less clear and do not support our hypothesis at the group-level, potentially due to the size of our current sample.

Keywords: bilingualism; pre-switch language; code switching; voluntary switching; cued switching

Abstract:

Dylan DeChiara

Stefanos Kalamaras

FOS Abstract

For our project we created a two player network Android based air hockey game. The network connection is a peer-to-peer Wi-Fi direct communication link between two Android tablets. . The goal of the project was to better develop our understanding for client and receiver communication along an over-the-air buffered input/output stream. Our game includes the ability for two players to play against each other on two separate devices in a competitive setting. Paddle and puck location are synchronized and updated in real-time between the devices. The game follows the classic air hockey rules, however the client is able to provide alternative parameters before the game is created. Alternative parameters include, goal size, number of goals to win, and time allotted per game. We wanted to bring the classic air hockey experience to the user while also giving them the freedom to make the game what they want it to be.

Abstract:

Catalonia is a region that has become significantly popular in the news of current events due to their government’s seeking independence from the Spanish government. In this essay, written in French, I focus on the dimensions of authenticity and anonymity studied by Doctor Kathryn Woolard on the Spanish Autonomous Community of Catalonia, ‘La double identité Catalane.’ The current political situation in Catalonia, especially given the new wave of independence sentiment initiated in 2011, has had an influence on the formation of Catalan identity today. In this essay, I focus my research on a brief cultural and linguistic links of French and Spanish in the Catalan language. I maintain that, although Catalan is closer to French in terms of language and that has helped shape the anonymous identity, Catalan people and customs have received more influence from Spain than from France, which has shaped their authentic identity that it is maintained by the pro-independence groups. I state that the French have created the more anonymous identity of Catalonia today, while the Spanish influence has shaped their more authentic and, paradoxically, the pro-independence identity of Catalonia.

Abstract:

On average, global temperatures have rapidly increased, air temperatures rising by 0.6 degrees Celsius since the mid-20th century (Møller et al., 2008). This has strong consequences for many species’ phenology, including migrating birds’ spring arrival times (Walther et al., 2002). These changes attest to both climate change and the birds’ phenotypic plasticity to respond -  if they exhibit phenological miscuing, the effects of climate change could be slow to manifest, but spring migrants may be reluctant to respond, relying on endogenous rhythms and other cues to migrate (Crick 2004; Marra et al. 2004). In New York, arrival dates has been recorded in the New York State Ornithological Association journal The Kingbird. To examine whether spring migrant birds have arrived earlier in St. Lawrence County, New York, I analyzed The Kingbird journal archives from 1951 to 2018, noting the recorded species’ first arrival dates and location per year in Region 6, St. Lawrence County. To collect data for the 2019 spring arrival dates, I sampled various locations in St. Lawrence County over the late-winter and spring seasons, using the ESRI Collector phone application to record species seen, location, date, temperature in Celsius, and number of individuals per species. I will download the data points into an ESRI Storymap to visualize the changes in arrival dates and places over time for species arriving in St. Lawrence County. I will also test each species’ date of arrival (converted into Julian dates) for significant changes from 1951 to 2019, using RStudio.

Abstract:

The use of terpenes in synthesis of chemical products may bring about a more sustainable future. Currently, chemical procedures include bulk chemicals such as hydrogen, benzene, and propylene obtained from oil and gas. The movement towards a more sustainable future is promoting green alternatives in industrial synthesis. This research focuses on exploring the functionalization of myrcene towards known DNA intercalators. A myrcene derived anthraquinone analog is foundation of our work with DNA intercalating agents. The molecules synthesized in this research are useful in that they eliminate the need for some environmentally harmful precursors as well as have the potential to mimic some of the structural properties that important drugs have. Analysis of these compounds is being done through GC/MS as well as C13 and H1 NMR. Future experiments will focus on the continuation of functionalizing the myrcene arms to better interact with DNA base pairs as well as finding methodology for testing our molecules efficiency as intercalators.

Abstract:

Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) is a remote sensing technique used for distance measurements and mapping. To obtain Lidar data, flyovers using airplanes or helicopters are done. From those aircrafts, laser technology sends light energy to the ground, and those energy pulses are reflected and returned to the Lidar sensors on the aircraft. The strength and speed of the return signal determine the elevation and type of object that was struck. New York State flew over and collected data of St. Lawrence County in 2017. There are many directions this new data allows us to go in, for example, high resolution DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) of campus can easily be made. These DEMs will allow us to model storm water runoff or maximum solar exposure on campus. I have created a clear workflow for downloading, processing and analyzing the Lidar data of St. Lawrence University. This workflow is beneficial to students, faculty, and staff who use the GIS program as a resource on campus.

Abstract:

Historically, schools and governments have served to reinforce societal norms and assumptions about certain groups, specifically based on race and class. When schools mirror society in this way, they often perpetuate harmful stereotypes towards minoritized students. In both the United States and Spain, school segregation is a result of outside societal factors as well as implicit biases within schools. Over the last seventy years, we have seen an increase in the body of research that aims to understand the amplitude of this segregation around the world. This study examines how racism and classism interact in the Spanish and American school systems while comparing the influence of policy and pedagogical practices.

Abstract:

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder affects approximately 6.8 percent of the U.S. population and can impair an individual’s ability to function in daily life. Due to the unethical nature of experimentally studying PTSD in humans, rodent models are employed to model PTSD and experimentally study behavioral manifestations as a result of stress exposure. The majority of research with rodent models of PTSD has focused on fear conditioning and extinction; very little research has investigated the maintenance and adaptation of appetitive (i.e. “positive”) behaviors. Twenty-four rats were trained on a left-right lever press response sequence. Following training, half the rats were exposed to a predator scent stress (PSS) paradigm to induce PTSD-like trauma. Following PSS exposure, rats were tested on the elevated plus maze and the open field test twice: one day and seven days following stress exposure. Following behavioral testing, all animals were tested on behavioral maintenance on the previously trained response sequence. Lastly, all animals were placed on extinction in the response sequence task. This study is serving to replicate a summer research fellowship, in an attempt to better understand paradoxical anxiolytic and enhanced extinction that previously resulted from stress exposure.

Abstract:

Abstract

The self-determination theory describes how human beings need to feel psychological satisfaction in terms of competence, autonomy, and relatedness (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Recent research surrounding the psychological need satisfaction of incarcerated individuals is extremely limited, but it demonstrates how self-determination theory is relevant inside of prison and jail settings using both qualitative and quantitative approaches (Sander, Sharkey, Olivarri, Tanigawa, & Mauseth, 2010; Barr, 2016; McKinney & Cotronea, 2011). The present study sought to build and expand upon previous research and understand how psychological need satisfaction was experienced through participation in different structured jail activities. Participants were involved in a five-session qualitative focus group. The first session provided participants with the a working understanding of different types of motivation, while the following three session focused on each basic psychological need (competence, autonomy, and relatedness), and the final was designed to bring these pieces together. The results of this study are currently being transcribed and analyzed. Preliminary results highlight the importance of psychological need satisfaction in activities.

Keywords: jail, incarceration, self-determination theory, motivation, St. Lawrence County

Abstract:

In 2016, Donald J. Trump was elected as President of the United States under a political platform that centered around an immigration policy crack-down. Forced human migration is at a current state of crisis, amidst political backlash to integration policy, exacerbating a much larger issue of systematic and anticipated human displacement. I argue that by facing the refugee crisis head on, we can direct its implications in a way that productively mitigates further conflict and loss of human life internationally, while nurturing healthy community integration and discourse domestically. This work reviews the context and theory of the racially isolationist American agenda, analysis of current events, and future models of successful community inclusion practice to support the implementation of refugee integration. This examination exposes the pressing matter of the refugee crisis, the damaging rhetoric within the alarmist discourse that has been promoted, and the xenophobic agenda of those who have promoted it.

Abstract:

Intrusive memories can inhibit everyday life and haunt people who have experienced a traumatic event. Playing the game Tetris has been explored as a method to reduce intrusive memories, as it is believed that Tetris utilizes the cognitive resources needed to consolidate the memories. If this is true, then we should expect that other tasks that utilize the same resources should also be effective to reduce intrusive memories. In the current study, various tasks including Tetris, a spatial working memory task, and a verbal working memory task were used to interfere with the reconsolidation process of intrusive memories. Reconsolidation allows a previously-formed memory to be altered shortly after it has been retrieved. Participants, recruited online via Amazon Mechanical Turk, viewed a trauma film multiple times for the purpose of inducing intrusive memories prior to retrieval. Self-reported number of intrusive memories, or “flashbacks,” plus behavioral symptoms of re-experiencing the film, were used as primary dependent measures. It is expected that those who play Tetris, the more engaging task, will experience the greatest decline in intrusive memories caused by the trauma film when recorded over 5 days, followed by the spatial working memory task, as both tasks compete with the visually-spatial processing resources needed to consolidate the memory. It is also expected that the verbal working memory task will not be as effective as the spatial working memory task or Tetris at reducing intrusive memories as it utilizes different cognitive resources. The performance on the verbal task is not expected to differ from the control condition, that received no interference treatment. Holistic treatments that result in long-term or permanent reduction of intrusive memories are needed. These findings could eventually be adapted to treat intrusive memories of psychological disorders such as depression, schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Abstract:

In this poster, I will introduce Pierre-Simon Laplace’s background, including his early life, his connection with French revolution, fundamental researches and contributions to the areas of mathematics, probabilities and engineer. And then I will include Laplace’s theorems, for example, Laplace Equation and Laplace Transformation, which are both named after him.

Abstract:

Knot theory is the study of mathematical knots. A main focus is whether two knots are the same even though they may appear different. Knot invariants play an important role in answering this question. One of the most interesting and successful types of invariants are knot polynomials. These involve associating polynomials with knots. We investigated several knot polynomials, including the Jones polynomial, as well as how we can relate these to graph theory.

Abstract:

As an undergraduate student at St. Lawrence University, I studied gender and development work, and found myself considering the history of INGOs in Kenya, a “developing” nation. While interning at two international nongovernmental organizations (their work based in Kenya), I asked myself three questions: What are we doing? How are we doing it? How can it be done better? To be frank, nonprofit work can always be done better, but the word “how” is what I have spent much of my time considering. The answer to this third question is complex and a definitive answer is impossible, but I believe my experience at the Hawker’s Market Girls Centre offers an alternative model to consider in approaching women’s development work. At this women’s empowerment center, low-income women are taught vocational skills such as sewing, beadwork, and hairdressing in preparation for entrepreneurial work after the year-long program concludes. While the work of HMGC is important, founder Shariffa Keshavjee’s story is where we learn the greatest lesson. In this adapted work, I explore Shariffa's experiences and challenges in establishing HMGC. Written as a journal article to be submitted to online platforms, I shift the conversation from an academic to a conversational tone to broaden the audience of this discussion. In preserving events told in my interview with Shariffa, I seek to demonstrate the power of grassroots, local women's empowerment efforts. Additionally, I address the example set by Shariffa both to students at HMGC and her fellow community members. She takes ownership over her community and, in a sense, participates in a greater movement to reclaim development work in “developing” nations. Her knowledge of her own community is valuable, and even as a Kenyan woman herself, she recognizes her privilege and inability to determine the wants and needs of other women in her community. So how can we do development work better? We can begin by revaluing local women’s knowledge of their own communities.

Abstract:

The Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys is interested in the slope stability of Wishbone Hill located in the Matanuska Valley about 80 kilometers northeast of Anchorage. Wishbone Hill is a derelict mining locality that has become heavily used for recreational activities. Using tree-ring methods, we evaluated slope stability by examining changes in tree-ring widths resulting from tree stems tilted by slope failures. We sampled 30 aspen trees (Populus tremuloides) that exhibited clearly curved trunks signaling a past tilting event. Two cores were taken from each tree, one on the up-tilted side and the second at 90 degrees in order to maximize the tilt signature in ring-width variance. Once the ring widths were digitized and a master chronology developed (1960-2017), years containing ring-width variance between intratree samples were noted. Every tree sampled contained ring-width variance. During the 56-year chronology the greatest increase in the percent of trees displaying major ring-width variance comes steadily between 1973 and 1980. Prior to 1973 the percentage of trees exhibiting major ring-width variance fluctuated around 28%. Subsequently, there is a steady increase until 1980 when 62% of the trees experienced ring-width variance. A plausible cause for this is likely a record rainfall event in August of 1971 when the area received over 13 cm of rainfall in 144 hours; thereby, weakening the slope. Additionally, these data suggest that these trees often experience multiple destabilizing events and that the hillside is often subject to mass movements. In the last 20 years the percentage of trees containing ring-width variance fluctuates around 40% suggesting a return to a more stable slope. As recreational activities increase at Wishbone Hill it is unlikely that there will be a large mass movement event under normal weather conditions. Another record rainfall event however, should be recognized as potential for another failure event.

Abstract:

Understanding conditions and deformation mechanisms operating in mid-crustal shear zones is crucial for overall assessment of rheological evolution of orogenic belts. Strain history can be complex owing to reactivation of these zones during different phases of orogenic history. In the field, these shear zones often exhibit conflicting kinematic shear sense and variable deformation conditions. Forming one of the major tectonic boundaries in the Adirondacks, the CCSZ separates the upper amphibolite facies rocks of the Adirondack Lowlands from the granulite facies units in the Adirondack Highlands. The CCSZ has a prolonged history with variable kinematics and the timing and conditions of different deformation phases are highly debated. We applied kinematic and vorticity analysis on the northern end of the CCSZ within the Stone Valley area (Colton, NY), where mylonitic rocks are exposed over 3.5 km long transect along the Raquette River. Various kinematic indicators, such as asymmetric porphyroclasts and composite S/C/C’ fabrics, dominantly show top-to-NNE sense of motion (normal fault), although some samples a minor component of top-to-SSW motion (reverse fault). Results of vorticity analyses show a range of kinematic vorticity number (Wk) from 0.61 to 0.83, indicating 38-57% pure shear deformation. We interpret our results as mylonites recording top-to-NNE and top-to-SSW motion contemporaneously in one deformation episode as oppose to during different episodes of deformation. Combined with previous geochronological data, these results further suggest observed deformational fabrics formed during the exhumation and collapse of the Ottawan orogenic phase.

Abstract:

Synthetic quantum dots are uniform, engineered nanomaterials that been useful in studying the cellular transport of nanoparticles. They have distinctive and unique optical properties that enable them to be used as agents for examining tumor deposition in biomedical imaging (such as cellular imaging, immunohistochemistry, and cancer diagnosis). Here we examine the deposition of indium phosphide/zinc sulfide quantum dots (InP/ZnS QDs) endocytosed by HT-22 cells and compare the uptake mechanisms to native hippocampal cells derived from CD-1 mouse brains. A dose-dependent effect was exhibited in HT-22 cells exposed to concentrations of quantum dots ranging from 1 nM to 550 nM for 24 hours. For subsequent transport studies, the 110 nM concentration of quantum dots provided robust fluorescence signal. To test for cytotoxicity, we measured cell viability at the 110 nM ZnS/InP QD concentration using Sytox Green. Our results showed no significant difference in viability between 110 nM quantum dots and control treatments, suggesting this dose is ideal for studying the endocytic mechanisms of quantum dots in HT-22 cells. Previous research shows that chlorpromazine, an antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia, is a potent inhibitor of clathrin receptor-mediated endocytosis. To determine whether HT-22 cells primarily use this mechanism to endocytose quantum dots, the cells were pretreated for 30 minutes with either 25 µM, 50 µM, or 100 µM chlorpromazine. Following inhibitor pre-treatment, the cells were exposed to 110 nM quantum dots and the same concentration of chlorpromazine used in the pre-treatment. A dramatic reduction in cell viability was observed between chlorpromazine and control treatments across all doses, suggesting the concentrations of chlorpromazine we tested were highly toxic in this cell type. In contrast to the HT-22 cells, exposure of InP/ZnS QDs up to 100 µM for 24 hours in growth media of native, hippocampal sections, showed no nanoparticle deposition relative to controls. To observe whether components of the regular growth media for brain slices interfered with the endocytosis of quantum dots in native tissue, artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) was used in its place. Under these conditions, nanoparticle deposition was still not observed. In sum, our findings demonstrate that the endocytosis of InP/ZnS QDs by immortalized hippocampal cells is not analogous to the nanoparticles’ uptake by native hippocampal tissue. Currently, many researchers use cell culture as a surrogate for endocytosis in native tissue believing the transport rates are equivalent between the two systems. Our findings suggest the contrary, and extrapolating the bioaccumulation of nanomaterials from immortalized cells to native tissue should be done with caution.

Abstract:

The coach-athlete relationship is a crucial component in the sport environment and is an important factor in an athlete’s perception of a caring climate. Past research links a caring climate to athletes exhibiting less anti-social behavior and showing more pro-social behavior. Part of the current study’s purpose is to continue researching the impact a caring climate has on pro-social and anti-social behaviors in athletes. This study also measures the impact a caring climate has on social cohesion on a team, which has yet to be researched. In addition, this study examines the impact of two coaching behaviors – cross-domain relationships and individualized attention - on an athlete’s perception of a caring climate. For this study, St. Lawrence University athletes on varsity sport teams are asked to complete an online survey. The survey asks participants about their coach-athlete relationships and their thoughts and behaviors in sport. Data collection is still going on and no data is available at this time. 

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to focus on college students in an Intro. to Chemistry class who are not motivated, and what simple yet effective teaching techniques can be used to motivate them. They either show no interest in learning or give up very quickly. I teach Introduction to Chemistry at SUNY Canton and there is a wide diversity in students w.r.t motivation levels. I have incorporated several teaching strategies as a result of taking several graduate level Education classes at St. Lawrence University. These teaching strategies help by making the students feel an ownership in class, in line with constructivist practices in education. Adaptive, motivated teachers reflect on the learning climate in the classroom and ponder what works and what does not. Such teachers play a pivotal role in educating students by interacting with them, gauging what they already know, building upon that knowledge, and using this vital information in the future designing of lessons and assessments. In an active learning environment, both the teacher and the students are part of the equation – where the teacher guides and aides the learning process, and the students learn out of their own curiosity. Overall, I feel good with the progress I have made so far as an educator especially in using constructivist practices in the past two years. Also, it is very encouraging to find that research shows the positive effects of constructivist techniques in education as well. I have started to begin my semester with a motivational introductory lecture on the first day of class. The introductory lecture helps to create a climate of learning with mutual trust and helps boost the morale of students. I have also started giving students short 2-3 minute brain breaks after 20-30 minutes of lecture so that students' brains get refreshed. Plus, I use contextual humor in class to keep students engaged. My student course comments from the past two years have been some of the best. Students find me engaging, motivating, ready to help, and available to discuss problems and concerns when they need me. As part of my future work, I would like to investigate the effect of constructivist teaching techniques on the learning environment in class. Do these practices help to motivate students to learn the subject matter? Is creating a good learning environment important or useful for students? I am planning to do a student questionnaire/survey at the end of this semester to get more data and input on the use of constructivist techniques and their positive effects on students.

Abstract:

Blaise Pascal grew up during one of the largest mathematical revolutions in history: The Age of Enlightenment transformed the intellectual landscape of Europe. While growing up and collaborating with other mathematicians such as Pierre Fermant, René Descartes, Gérard Desargue, Gilles Personne de Roberval, Isaac Newton, and others, Blaise Pascal made some of the most impressive mathematical improvements of all time. Along with being a mathematician, Blaise Pascal was also known as a physicist, a religious philosopher, and a master of prose. For this project I have examined one of Pascal’s discoveries: the algorithmic triangle known as Pascal’s Triangle, and how it was informed by the time he lived. In doing this I have examined how the triangle is used in simple addition all the way to complex probability concepts. Thus, helping the argument that Pascal has become one of the most well-known mathematicians of all time.

Abstract:

Challenges associated with attending college, such as academic expectations, time-management, and independence, contribute to the stress experienced by college students. In fact, recent research estimates that about 25% of college students experience mental health disorders such as anxiety and depression, among others. The current study was designed to better understand the extent to which college students perceive and cope with stress, and to identify relationships among factors that may contribute to stress in the academic environment. Participants, St. Lawrence University students, first completed a survey consisting of several self-report questionnaires that measured stress-related factors, including anxiety, procrastination, personality traits, affect, and mindfulness. Then, participants were invited to participate in a stress-reduction intervention. Those who agreed were placed in either a 5-day stress-intervention, consisting of 10-minute recordings of body-scan mindfulness meditation, or were wait-listed (the control group). Participants then completed a post-intervention survey that assessed measures similar to those in the initial survey. Following analyses, the findings are expected to determine if a short-term mindfulness intervention can help increase mindfulness and reduce students’ perceived stress. Indeed, research suggests that greater mindfulness measures are associated with reduced perceived stress and increased positive affect. Identifying an effective, time-efficient method of stress reduction would be beneficial to the overall health and well-being of the busy college student, and may contribute to improved academic productivity and success.

Abstract:

Major League baseball collects data on over 80 variables for every pitch thrown in every game in the major leagues. We created a web application to allow users to easily access this database and summarize information about their favorite players or matchups. Users can control the batter, pitcher, or date range to select data from the 2018 season. After selecting the data, the user can toggle between various graphs to visualize aspects such as pitch locations, pitch movements/speeds, along with results and types of pitches. At any stage the user can download a version of the data for their own use.

Abstract:

In the salary cap era of the NHL, evaluating which parts of a team’s roster can best help generate a post season berth could provide insight to organisations on where they should invest. Novet (2017) proposed that hockey was a strong link sport meaning that a team can be as good as their best player rather than a game like soccer where you can only be as good as your worst player. We have extended this work using three different responses from five regular seasons for the impact of a player Fenwick, THoR and X Shot are varying multiple regression models that generate an adjusted “plus minus” type proxy for individual NHL players, Schuckers and Curro (2013). By constructing quantiles and evaluating basic estimates such as max, min, mean, median, range and Gini we assessed the impact certain team structures could have on regular season points. The three different proxies generated different results regarding what parts of a team would help the most but ultimately, we agreed with Alex Novets sentiment that for a team to do well they need the top players to help set the tone on their teams.

Abstract:

Previous research has found that when mock jurors swear an oath and are then asked to disregard incriminating evidence, the number of guilty verdicts are significantly lower compared to the number of guilty verdicts rendered when jurors are never exposed to the incriminating evidence. This curious finding suggests that those asked to disregard the evidence are demonstrating an overcorrection bias to avoid potential inequalities or injustices due to being exposed to the incriminating evidence. The current study examines whether informing jurors of the potential for bias will neutralize this overcorrection effect. Prior research by Demaine (2008) suggests that informing mock jurors of potential biases may allow them to better account for these information processing tendencies, leading to more just outcomes.

Abstract:

Many perceive industrial robots as a prominent symbol of automation. By design, industrial robots are most commonly used in the manufacturing sector, but their range of applications is expanding dynamically. This study investigates the impact of industrial robots on how much firms spend on personnel relative to other production costs across several manufacturing subsectors in the European Union and Norway. It focuses more closely on the automotive sector as it is the most prolific utilizer of industrial robots worldwide. The analysis covers seven manufacturing subsectors across 14 countries from 2011 to 2016. Using an instrumental variable approach, we find that a 1.0% point increase in the robot density (Number of robots per 10,000 workers) results in a 0.172% point decrease in the labor share of total production costs, holding all else constant. The labor share in production costs in the automotive sector does not appear to be affected by a change in the robot density any differently than in other manufacturing sectors.

Abstract:

Bee populations around the globe have been decreasing for the last several decades. While many factors are contributing to this decline, several are related to nutrition. A diverse diet is critical for bee’s growth, reproduction, learning, and resistance to viruses and parasites. The nutrition available to bees can be investigated by analyzing the nutritional profile of one of their major food sources, honey. The goal of this work is to develop facile methods to analyze the nutritional profile of honey. Analytes include moisture content; minerals and metals; sugars, glycerol, and organic acids. Moisture content will be measured as a percentage of weight after honey is heated to a constant mass and through refractometric methods. Samples will be subjected to microwave digestion and minerals and metals will be determined with FAAS. An enzymatic assay will be applied for glycerol and glucose determination. Organic acids will be analyzed using solid phase extraction followed by HPLC. Techniques developed will be applied to the study of monofloral honeys to compare their respective nutritional profiles. Eventually, this information will be used to create environments with plants that provide appropriate nutrition for pollinators year-round.

Abstract:

Amyloid fibers are a component of bacterial biofilms that can be isolated through various protocols for analysis. The standard assay uses Thioflavin T (ThT) to identify the presence and quantity of mature amyloid fibers. ThT is a molecular rotor meaning that it rotates around a single bond. When bound to amyloid fibers this rotation is inhibited and stabilizes the excited state, thus producing measurable fluorescence. However, ThT is not an effective measure of amyloid oligomer formation, the smaller building blocks of mature fibers. ANS, Bis-ANS, and DCVJ are three alternatives to ThT that are characterized by a multi-ring structure. DCVJ acts in a similar way to ThT in that, when bound, the molecule is locked into an excited state producing fluorescence. In contrast, ANS and Bis-ANS bind to the hydrophobic regions of proteins which are exposed during amyloid fiber formation and following binding, the molecules fluoresce. Little is currently known about the binding and consequent fluorescence of these molecules to oligomers. This research will examine the ability of these three fluorophores to bind to oligomers throughout the aggregation process, giving an indication of kinetics and method of amyloid fiber formation. Insulin will be used because it forms amyloid fibers under well-defined conditions. Preliminary research shows DCVJ and ANS follow the pattern of ThT, meaning that as mature fiber concentration increases, so does the fluorescence signal. Bis-ANS, however, displays the opposite pattern, indicating it is likely detecting varying concentrations of amyloid oligomers via binding to the exposed hydrophobic residues.

Abstract:

Though climate change is the pressing ethical issue of today from a variety of ethical frameworks, no significant action has taken place in the United States to avert its disastrous impacts. Opposition to U.S. government policy solutions for climate change is largely driven by conservatives. Arguments in favor of climate change policies from the conservative perspective could reduce opposition and bring about successful implementation of these policies. However, modern American conservatism has no singular theoretical basis. Consequently, one must argue from more specific political philosophies that underlie conservative ideology in the U.S. today. Two such influential perspectives on modern American conservatism are 20th century libertarians Robert Nozick and Friedrich August von Hayek.

Nozick and Hayek’s writings are foundational to long-standing beliefs in American conservatism such as small government and free markets. Both assert a type of Kantian morality to justify their respective theories but present slightly divergent interpretations and applications of Kant. In this work, I argue that both Nozick and Hayek’s theories suggest climate change mitigation via greenhouse gas emission restrictions is morally necessary to correct the ongoing violation of individuals’ rights. Further, Nozickians might spurn climate change mitigation in the form of government support of distributed renewable energy generation, but Hayekians would likely endorse these types of policies. Carbon taxing, a type of climate policy with recent conservative support, appeals to both Nozick and Hayek’s theories if implemented by just means. These theoretical applications of Nozick and Hayek may thus persuade American conservatives to join the call for government action to avert the worst of climate change

Abstract:

Previous research has suggested that public libraries have the capacity to address many social determinants of health (SDOH), given their wide-reaching programs and resources, yet these facilities often lack the mobilization efforts of the community. This study explored the potential of the local Canton public library as a means of improving health literacy of the local residents. An anonymous, voluntary survey was conducted at the Canton Free Library to assess three broad categories of investigation: demographics, library usage, and interest in future health programs. Responses from the survey were compiled into RStudio and were analyzed for statistical significance. While no significant differences existed between responses of survey questions (p>0.05; n=14), trends in responses highlighted interesting characteristics unique to rural populations. The responses indicate an even distribution of male and female participants, with household incomes of $25,000 or less, one of the commonly cited obstacles to attaining healthcare in rural populations. Also, of note, aside from their healthcare provider, respondents reported the internet as their primary source of health information. We have learned that there is a desire for guidance in regard to finding reputable internet sources of health information as a future public health strategy, further highlighting the importance of improved health literacy within these populations. Survey respondents reported interest in both handout flyers and informational sessions with healthy eating as the most requested topic. Expressed interest in methods of health inquiry can be suggestive of the promising qualities public libraries have as means to improve health literacy.

Abstract:

Cortisol, its production and its effects are being discussed more frequently as studies share new findings about stress. Wildlife, like the North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) experience harsh conditions throughout the cold winters in northern New York, likely leading to higher cortisol levels than their captive counterparts. To test this potential difference, I collected fecal samples from wild and captive porcupines from October 2018 to March 2019. I quantified cortisol using an ELISA test. Preliminary results support the finding that captive porcupines experience less stress in winter than their wild counterparts. Understanding the stress profiles of wild animals may be extremely helpful in the effort to conserve species and their habitats. If we can discover which environmental and anthropological factors cause stress and thus influence cortisol profiles, conservationists can work more efficiently to preserve and protect species globally.

Abstract:

Since its founding following World War II, the United Nations has conducted dozens of peacekeeping missions around the world. Peacekeepers’ mandates frequently expect them to be both impartial keepers of the peace and providers of protection and humanitarian aid to civilians, goals that often come into conflict. In the case of the war in Bosnia and specifically the UN-declared “safe area” of Srebrenica, the Dutch Battalion (Dutchbat) peacekeeping troops were faced with an impossible situation in which they lacked both sufficient supplies to provide aid for the civilian Muslim population and sufficient weapons to defend the Safe Area from the Bosnian Serb army which surrounded them. At the same time, the UN expected them to remain neutral and not come into conflict with the Bosnian Serb forces. This research focuses on the personal experiences of the Dutch troops as they faced these competing expectations within the parameters of the UN mission while Srebrenica was seized by the Bosnian Serb military, which systematically rounded up and massacred thousands of Muslim men and boys in their presence.

Abstract:

While prejudice and hatred continue to permeate the American public through media and prominent public figures, the need for unity has never been greater. Understanding the effects of intentional and inadvertent prejudice is the first step toward finding a solution for this unnecessary conflict. The Prisoner’s Dilemma studies strategies for iterative decision making between two parties. It has applications to business and economics, psychology, and international relations. Through the discussion of various strategies players can employ in the Prisoner’s Dilemma, we can see how cooperation with others and defection against can enhance the effects of prejudice in a society. Focusing on the most prominent strategies, including Tit-for-Tat, and considering various conditions of the environment, we will be able to further understand prejudice and discuss efforts that can be made to further reduce the spread of prejudice.

Abstract:

The use of electronic cigarettes has recently been on the rise, as there are not only adults switching to electronic cigarette use to avoid smoking traditional cigarettes, but also adolescents and young adults who are beginning to use and become addicted to electronic cigarettes. It is often claimed that these electronic cigarettes are a better alternative to traditional cigarettes, and although there may be some legitimacy to this claim, the effects of electronic cigarettes on health are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of nicotine-free e-cigarette vapor condensate on RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line. RAW 264.7 cells were chosen as a model cell-type, as previous studies have shown that macrophage cells exhibit inflammatory responses to e-cigarette vapor condensate. To obtain the e-cigarette vapor condensate we constructed a lung-like apparatus that functioned to “inhale” the vapor and then condense it to a usable liquid product. We then treated cells with the vapor condensate and performed a reactive oxygen species (ROS) production assay with the fluorescent dye H2CM-DCFDA to determine if the e-cigarette vapor condensate caused the cells to act in more of an inflammatory way (by producing more ROS). We found that cells treated with e-cigarette vapor condensate were not capable of producing the same amount of ROS as cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (a known inflammatory stimulant). We believed that this may have been because the e-cigarette vapor condensate was affecting cell viability, rather than inflammation. To then assess cell viability, we performed crystal violet staining and flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI staining. (sentence about flow findings). These results show us that nicotine-free e-cigarette vapor condensate could be capable of affecting cell viability in the RAW 264.7 cells. If it is capable of affecting the viability of these cells, then it could also be capable of affecting the viability of cells in the human body that come in contact with the vapor.

Abstract:

Intrusive memories are unexpected images, thoughts, and sensations that remind an individual of a traumatic experience; these memories are often associated with PTSD, depression, and anxiety. To date, studies that have induced intrusive memories in non-clinical populations have only used self-reported measures, such as the diary of memory intrusions reported daily, to measure the effectiveness of various behavioral techniques for reducing intrusive memories of mildly traumatic events. Therefore, a more objective, physiological measure is needed to verify that memory intrusions experienced by participants are associated with a reduction of physiological responses to stimuli that may trigger the traumatic memory. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Skin Conductance Responses (SCRs) are an acceptable measurement of intrusive memory extinction in a design that, first, induced intrusive emotional memories, and then aimed to actively diminish them by interfering with their reconsolidation (a process by which previously formed memories strengthen). We predict that SCRs will be an effective physiological approach to measure the successful elimination of intrusive memories. The participants were healthy undergraduate students at St. Lawrence University. Skin conductance recordings were taken while participants watched the trauma film clips on Day 1, when memories for the film were reactivated on Day 2, and at the conclusion of the study on Day 6. When the participants report greater behavioral impacts and the number of memory intrusions due to the trauma film, SCRs are expected to be greater. Lastly, SCRs at the conclusion of the study are expected to be lower in conditions that aimed to actively reduce intrusive memories than the control conditions.

Abstract:

Harnessing solar energy efficiently is one way to tackle climate change and our dependency on fossil fuels. Metal to metal charge transfer in heterobinuclear units matches the energy of visible light. Hence, heterobinuclear light absorbers are potentially key features in artificial photosynthesis systems. The excited electron state is unknown but expected to undergo a spin flip. Heterobinuclear units on silica surfaces make an effective system in which to investigate intersystem crossings in the context of electron transfer to a 2,2’-bipyridine chromophore. Hafnium is heavier than previously studies early transition metals in heterobinuclear units and will have 60 times stronger spin-orbit coupling. Hafnium-cobalt oxo-bridged on silica nanoparticles have been synthesized. Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy were used to ensure successful synthesis steps. Samples have been probed with 2,2’ bipyridine and analyzed with time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and time-resolved fluorescence, to investigate the lifetime of the excited state.

Abstract:

Turtles are popular pets amongst modern families. Hence, there are many internet-based pet guides on the nutrition requirements for turtles; however, these are vague and there are few exact recommendations on feeding regimes, especially for omnivorous turtles. Most pet and academic resources suggest feeding worms, cockroaches, lettuce, etc., but not the proportions of each. We investigated the impact of the proportion of crude protein on the growth of turtle hatchlings. We used 12 hatchlings to collect empirical data that for the painted turtle, a common pet species and a native species to New York. We measured their initial weight and shell length (carapace length). The turtles were then divided into 3 treatment groups, stratified by size. Each group was assigned to a dose of 40%, 60%, or 80% crude protein, consisting of dried shrimp. The food was added to the water each morning at 9 o’clock and was removed and measured by changing the water at 3 o’clock in the afternoon. We measured the turtles’ weight and length at the beginning of the diet (Day 0) and after each week until Day 28 and calculated growth rates (%). We used a mixed-model to determine the effect of protein dose while taking account of temperature and individual behavior. The results will provide guidelines for a healthy diet of the turtles kept in artificial reserves in any situation.

Abstract:

Bog lakes have unusual environmental qualities, such as acidic and poorly oxygenated waters that appear to prevent fish colonization. However, there are a wide variety of microorganisms and insects present. Here, I use Google Earth to estimate the density and total number of bogs present in the Adirondack Park. I counted all small lakes that ranged from 10 to 99.99 km2, including those in bogs, within replicate (n=30) circular areas (12,000 km2) haphazardly placed across the northern part of the park, both inside (high elevation) and outside (low elevation) the High Peaks region. I estimate that there are 1,099 bog lakes in the Adirondacks, and 7,200 small lakes overall. There are a total of 11,076 lakes in the Adirondacks and ~10% are bog lakes. Due to a low percentage of abundance, bog lakes are fairly rare in the Adirondacks. Total small lakes, at high elevations, were 38% of the lakes counted. At low elevations, total small lakes were 61% of the lakes counted. Around 1% of small lakes recorded in high elevations were bog lakes and about 10% of small lakes recorded in low elevations were bog lakes. Although bog lakes are not quite common, there are perhaps 1,099 of these unique water bodies in the Adirondacks, and while each have peculiar conditions, like containing no fish, bog lakes continuously support an abundance of unusual lifeforms!

Abstract:

From the start of geoscience inquiry, drawing has been an important tool to observe and record the natural world. In many of the first scientific expeditions, this was one of the few methods of recording data, especially if a sample was too large to bring back on the ship. Now in the 21st century, with the availability of portable computers, autonomous sensors, and photography, is drawing still an effective tool in understanding geology? The purpose of this study is to understand the importance of drawing in geology education.

We conducted a literature review on the topic and will survey geology students in order to assess the importance of drawing, its effectiveness as a learning instrument, and if there is room for improvement, in geology classes, labs, and assignments. Additionally, we will examine if drawing is a more effective tool for comprehension of specific geology field observations. For example, if drawings aid in understanding mineral morphology under a microscope or distinguishing different rocks in an outcrop. We hypothesis that this old tool still has great value in the digital age, due to its ability to conventionalize geologic features and help students visualize geological models learned in lecture.

Abstract:

For almost a century, the St. Lawrence County Poorhouse aided in sheltering the poor, sick, and destitute of St. Lawrence County, NY. With over 2,000 inmates being housed over the course of its lifetime, and with approximately 300 inmates living in the home at any given time, this institution had a large impact on the area. The Superintendent of the Poorhouse kept a diary in which daily life within the poorhouse was documented, and ten of these diaries are curated at the St. Lawrence Historical Association, Canton, NY. I spent the summer digitizing, transcribing, and creating a digital repository of these ten diaries. Archiving the lived experience of the inmates and management of the St. Lawrence County Poorhouse around the turn of the 19th century has provided a more holistic look into the operation of the institution, something that has not been done before. In addition, this project has made these accounts accessible to the local community.

Abstract:

Oxygen is crucial to the normal functioning of human physiology, especially the brain which consumes about 20 % of the total oxygen in the body due to its high metabolic rate. Certain catalysts in the brain can reduce oxygen to more reactive forms producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS have essential functions in the body, but they are chemically reactive, and they can strip electrons from biomolecules, such as DNA and proteins. This can result in a dysfunctional cell and ultimately in a non-functional one. Cells have systems that can neutralize ROS, but when the number of reactive species exceeds the capacity of these systems, cells experience oxidative stress which could induce cell death. Oxidative stress has been linked with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Administering ceria nanoparticles (CeNPs) to experimental animals with MS has shown MS symptoms declining in those animals. However, the underlying mechanism of how CeNPs behave in blood plasma is still unknown. We implemented spectroscopic studies, specifically Raman Spectroscopy, to better understand the interaction between CeNPs and biomolecules by using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a protein model. Raman spectra of citrate, BSA, and CeNPs coated with citrate were collected to investigate whether Raman can provide insight into CeNPs-BSA interaction. We present data that establishes the Raman active vibrational energies of CeNPs, BSA, and the CeNPs – BSA.

Abstract:

In 1951, Kenneth Arrow proved that no voting method can be entirely fair. However, we still need a way to vote. If we have to pick a flawed method of voting, then the following questions are raised: What are the positive and negative aspects of some common voting methods? What voting method is the least unfair? How should we vote and how should we count those votes? Perhaps more importantly, how can we make voters feel that their votes actually matter. We discuss different voting methods, including examples of current use and implications.

Abstract:

Lyme disease is increasing in prevalence throughout the Northeastern United States. Public health officials have been profiling incidence of tick-borne disease in Maine since the late 1990s; however, gaps remain in understanding how environmental factors may increase tick density and prevalence of infection.

Through a SLU Internship Fellowship award, this study aimed to determine how habitat type influenced Tick density and prevalence of Hard Tick-Borne infection in a recreational site in Augusta, ME.

During the summer of 2018, I identified plant communities to set up tick study sites, collected ticks in order to determine tick abundance and species type, and monitored ecosystem characteristics that could influence tick density. Ticks were also tested for infectious diseases, such as Lyme disease, in a vector borne disease laboratory.

The greatest number of ticks were located in the mature growth forest and field habitat type sites. Tick Larvae were more commonly detected than Nymph or Adult Ticks, possibly due to sampling in early summer. A public information brochure describing the study results and prevention measures for ticks was distributed at the recreational site, and to the greater community to spread awareness. I plan to continue this same research by sampling in Canton, NY for my SYE research project in the fall of 2019.

Abstract:

Europe’s rich history has had many influences on the modern-day world. Some of the most renowned stories and writers have stemmed from European countries. This paper is examining the well-known children’s stories Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass written by the Victorian author Lewis Carroll. Employing Farah Mendelsohn’s methodology on fantasy this project will argue that the books lie under the definition of the “portal-quest” fantasy. Alice enters another world where she must navigate and discover her own identity as a young girl in the Victorian era. Using Northrop Frye’s heroic analysis this project will also argue that Alice is a comedic low-mimetic hero. Carroll employing Alice as this hero-type allows him to creatively use word play and satire to create a narrative that is commenting on the flaws of Victorian schooling. Understanding the type of fantasy being presented allows the reader to understand the effects of the Victorian schooling model on Alice. Carroll’s works constantly challenge the assumptions that were made about Victorian children. Having these tales placed in a fantastical setting allows Carroll to break free from the Victorian social norms expressing that children can learn through imagination and wordplay. This directly challenges the ideas that children should learn through fear and not pursue high levels of education. Instead, Carroll creates works that gave young children, especially young girls, a model for learn through imagination. For contemporary readers, these stories represent the expressions and fears of the Victorian people when it came to school and shows that the arguments on the best way to learn has been in debate for many years.

Abstract:

The cryptocurrency market is a new frontier of trading that has capabilities that have not been explored yet. However, it often falls under immense criticism due to the lack of understanding that the public has. Furthermore, the overall volatility of the market inherently frightens the safer investors. As a result, people are trading coins without proper knowledge and do not understand the technology behind most of these currencies. This means that the public’s perception and ownership of coins could have some correlation with the price of the coins. The lack of understanding causes a societal value to be placed on these coins rather than appraising them for their intended purpose. I have decided to run a market basket analysis on the top 10 “coins” in the cryptocurrency market to see if we can predict market volume and price throughout different time periods (at certain times of the day, per month, per year, etc...).To do this, we can look at trade volume, market cap, daily prices, and more. The goal of Market Basket Analysis is to predict what future customers are more likely to purchase based on previous transactions. We can categorize the data to fit our parameters by determining whether within a certain time frame there is a gain or loss. After preforming MB analysis, we compare the results to the results from Support Vector Machine regression. SVM is another classification technique that can map it’s inputs into high-dimensional feature spaces. As a result, I hope to be able to follow economic and social trends (either short or long term) to discover a stable approach to an emerging economy.

Abstract:

Fraudulent credit card transactions are a problem and many companies and credit cardholders have been negatively affected. Therefore, it is very important to identify false credit card transactions accurately. The purpose of this project is to apply multiple methods to distinguish between fake credit card transactions and real credit card transactions. The data is from Kaggle and it contains 492 frauds out of 284,807 transactions by European cardholders in September 2013. Due to confidentiality issues, the original variables have been masked. I will apply multiple methods to these data with emphasis on Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique (SMOTE), an approach to classify imbalanced datasets by increasing the percentage of the minority cases and then identifying the category by combining features of the target cases with features of its neighbors. These methods will be compared based upon their ability to correctly classify these transactions as fraudulent or not.

Abstract:

Women of color have been central to the fight against sexual harassment, as evidenced in key court cases from the 1980s as well as the Anita Hill-Clarence Thomas hearings in 1991. Even so, in the recently born Me Too Movement, which was created by an African American woman, women of color continue to be marginalized. Not only in this movement are they excluded but also from the “waves” of feminism because the accounts and issues of white women have been most prominently publicized. The fight to combat these matters needs to involve the inclusion of all women’s power and intersectionality regardless of differences. Together in solidarity, sexual harassment for women of color, as well as other women, can come to an end.

Abstract:

The actions of the Holocaust were perpetrated by ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances. Under the cover of war, these events were systematically organized to make killers out of the modern man. By physically and psychologically distancing themselves, perpetrators were now capable of committing crimes they would not do of their own volition. A major consequence of not directly seeing the results of their actions was that they never truly felt their full repercussions. As the zeitgeist became more skewed, so too did the accepted morality of the day. Rather than being simply events of the past, the effects of the Holocaust still hold modern ramifications. “Never again” must, unfortunately, be viewed as an anacronym since, by definition, human nature will always be self-serving. How far must things progress before one is willing to sacrifice one’s own integrity?

Abstract:

The self-reference effect describes a tendency to remember information that is associated with the self better than information not associated with the self. Oakes and Onyper (2017) found that engaging in motion towards a representation of oneself, whether physical (like our bodies) or disembodied (like our cell phones), leads to the activation of self-referential effect: a movement-induced self-referential effect (MISRE). In three experiments, we examined whether self-referential processing occurred when a virtual representation of the self is used: a selfie. Participants uploaded a selfie of themselves and then completed a word categorization task by moving neutral words toward their own selfie or toward another individual’s selfie. We found that both recognition memory and free recall of words categorized by self-directed movements were facilitated regardless of participants’ intention to memorize the stimuli or the movement direction with respect to one’s physical body. In contrast, implicit memory was not susceptible to MISRE. In conclusion, these results suggest that movement-induced self-referential processing provides a powerful way to remember information.

Abstract:

Gerrymandering is the act of politicians manipulating the redrawing of legislative district lines to help their friends and hurt their enemies (Fairvote). As the era of mass incarceration exploded so did prison gerrymandering. Prison gerrymandering has been inescapable because of the Census Bureau’s “usual residence rule” (Skocpol, 1483). This study investigates the impacts of prison gerrymandering on county political representations and institutionalized racism by analyzing and synthesizing the theoretical and empirical literature dealing with prison gerrymandering. I hypothesize that prison gerrymandering further continues to support institutionalized racism and skews county political representation.

Abstract:

Understanding the excited metal-to-metal change transfer (MMCT) states of heterobinuclear units is vital to creating artificial photosystems. To learn more about the metal electron transfer and to model artificial photosystems, binuclear units on silica nanoparticles were synthesized using air free techniques and coupled to bipyridine chromophores. Particles were pressed into transparent pellets and were characterized using UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy. Time-correlated single-photo counting (TCSPC) and 2D fluorescence data were collected to measure the excitation spectrum, emission yield, and lifetime of each binuclear unit/chromophore charge transfer polyad. These data provide evidence that when the energy levels of the system are in the correct rectifying arrangement, the excited state persists to the microsecond timescale.

Abstract:

The self-reference effect (SRE) explains why memory for items, such as words or personality traits, is increased when that information is acquired by relating it to yourself, as opposed to a stranger or object. Our research examined if the SRE can be induced by movement, as well as whether it would extend to include close others like friends and family. Participants sorted neutral personality traits by moving them toward a picture of themselves, a close other, or a stranger. We found that personality traits moved towards the self and a close other were recognized more accurately than traits moved towards a stranger. Moreover, individuals low on interdependence showed the highest accuracy in recognizing traits moved towards the self and the lowest accuracy for traits moved towards a stranger, whereas those high in interdependence showed similar accuracy rates for all traits regardless of the point of reference. These results suggest that those high on interdependence spread memory resources equally across all referents, whereas those low on interdependence prioritize the self.

Abstract:

The opioid epidemic is an issue that is sweeping the nation and affecting rural populations at an increasing rate. Rural areas are very under served when it comes to treatment centers specializing in opioid recovery. This project aims to use GIS (Geographic Information Systems) to map the opioid epidemic in New York State and distance to treatment centers from areas in the north country. Results hope to show the scarcity of treatment centers in the north country and may serve as a basis for implementing treatment centers that are more accessible to under served regions of NYS.

Abstract:

Previous research suggests that the inclusion of an oath along with reminders of that oath increase adherence to a judge’s instruction to disregard inadmissible testimony as evidenced by a significant decrease in the number of guilty verdicts. Although a juror oath is a common practice, the inclusion of reminders is not. The present study examines the importance of oath reminders by asking mock jurors to read a summary of a murder trial in which the judge instructs the juror to disregard incriminating evidence. The presence of an oath as well as the number and placement of oath reminders were manipulated. Preliminary analyses suggest that swearing an oath and providing two reminders at strategic points during the trial reduced the number of guilty verdicts, implying that jurors listened to the instructions of the judge and ignored incriminating evidence. However, the elimination of one or more of the reminders, regardless of where it was located, nullified the impact of the oath. Overall, these findings suggest that providing oath reminders during a trial may be an important addition to judicial procedure.

Abstract:

As a multifunctional device, the smartphone has become an essential tool for many people. Since they play an important role in daily communication and storing personal information, losing a smartphone is not only inconvenient but also a risk of leaking private information. Over here! is an Android application that allows users to locate their lost device using another Android device. Over here! provides user authentication via an online Google cloud database called Firebase to ensure that device information can only be accessed by the device owner. The Firebase Realtime Database was implemented to store and retrieve device location as well as user information. Users can either set an alarm to locate the device if it is close, or request the device’s location and get real time location updates as the lost device is moved.

Abstract:

The Raquette River located in the St. Lawrence County, New York is home to many freshwater bivalves. The environment in which these clams live can affect their morphology and growth rates. The water chemistry is an important controlling factor on shell production of these calcifying organisms. In this study, we examine the effects of habitat and water chemistry on the growth rate of fresh water clams from the Raquette River.

We collected shells from 15 different sites along the Raquette River. For each locality, a minimum of 25 clams was collected. Samples were aged and length and width were measured.

The Raquette River is known to shows variation in water chemistry that is linked to the bedrock it runs over. Closer to its source waters of the river are more acidic than further north. This study explores if these variations in water chemistry result in detectable differences in size and age structure of bivalves from different sampling localities and how growth rate are impacted by these differences

Abstract:

The United States has the world’s highest incarceration rate at 670 per 100,000 people. Also, the United States prison population has been growing since the 1980s. Only 13.4% of the US population is black but 38.0% of US federal inmates are black. In 2008 and 20009, black people received on average sentences that were 35 months longer than sentences received by white people. We examine these disparities by looking at prison sentence length by race for the same crime.

Abstract:

Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) have always been renowned for their impressive scenting capabilities, and have been used for a variety of different detection jobs. More recently, dogs have been used in wildlife detection as a less invasive method of sampling species through locating scat or individuals. We aim to quantify the detection dogs’ ability to differentiate between American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and other species when not directly trained to ignore other amphibians. Our results will inform future amphibian studies and refinement of this survey method. We will train the dogs to detect the toads using a scent box containing four mason jars. One mason jar holds the scent, and the dogs are rewarded only when they sniff the jar with the scent. In order to train the dogs to search and alert, we began clicker training the dogs using a cotton swab with birch oil on it, kept in a scent-proof box when not in use, and switched to cotton swabs with toad scent when the dogs were proficient at the task. Every time the dog sniffs the Mason jar with the toad swab, they are rewarded with a click, immediately followed with a treat. We will test the dogs to discriminate among toad species using Fowler’s toads and others as distractors. We expect that dogs exposed to a single toad species during training will alert incorrectly on other toads more often than on more distantly related frogs.

Abstract:

Stress is the body’s way of responding to a demand or threat. When a threshold point is exceeded, stress reduces productivity, health, mood and quality of life. College students face a unique set of pressures from assignments, deadlines, studying, and campus life. The focus of this study was to understand the factors that cause stress and to characterize the coping mechanisms and behaviors utilized to deal with stress. The study also examined whether the location and the make-up of the student body affects how college students cope with stress by comparing two private universities of similar size. The principal investigator, Karin Heckman, Ph.D., an associate professor of biology at St. Lawrence University, and the research student, Christian Jennette, collaborated with Katherine Burgess, Ph.D., an assistant professor of biology at Avila University, to administer an online survey to the students of each university that contained questions addressing these factors. St. Lawrence is located in a rural community in upstate New York and has a primarily white student body, and Avila is located in an urban community near Kansas City, Missouri and has a larger African American and Hispanic/Latino population. In total, 133 students responded to the survey, 70 were from St. Lawrence University and 63 were from Avila University. At St. Lawrence University, it was discovered that the top five stress sources were academic stress, future career plans, job stress, financial concerns, and family events/issues respectively. In contrast at Avila University, academic stress, financial concerns, future career plans, family events/issues, and job stress were the top five respectively. The top coping strategies that were present at Avila University were to listen or play music, take a nap, stream content (i.e. watch Netflix), spend time with friends, and exercise. At St. Lawrence University, the top five coping strategies found were to stream content (i.e. watch Netflix), listen or play music, spend time with friends, take a nap, and exercise. It is hoped that the results of the survey will provide insight on how students can better cope with stress in these distinct settings.

Abstract:

Color vision deficiency, also known as “color blindness,” is the inability to distinguish colors from one another. The three main types of color-vision deficiency are protanomaly, tritanomaly, and deuteranomaly. Deuteranomaly is the most common form of color-vision deficiency. People with deuteranomaly have issues distinguishing shades of red and green, including many oranges and browns. Color-vision deficiency occurs in around 8% of men and around .5% of women (colorblindawarness.org). Using these statistics, it can be interred that in a college class of 50, upwards of 4 students may be dealing with some type of color-vision deficiency.

Students with color-vision deficiency may encounter problems within both class and laboratory settings, specifically within the geosciences. This study will discuss the problems that these students face, including thin-section mineral identification, the use of rainbow maps, and reading graphs and lecture presentations. Possible solutions to these issues will be overviewed and evaluated. The three solution areas discussed are practical solutions (i.e. color design), the integration of color-identification technology with microscope work, and the use of color corrective lenses. These solutions can be applied across multiple scientific fields.

Abstract:

DETERMINING TROPHIC TRANSFER OF MICROPLASTICS IN THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER SYSTEM

Nathan Pollack1, Adam Hill2, Sara L. Ashpole*1

1 Department of Environmental Studies. 2 Department of Chemistry, 3Department of Biology. St. Lawrence University, Canton. NY. 13617.

While plastic pollution in aquatic environments has been an environmental problem for more than half a century, only in recent years has it gained more public awareness. Microplastics ( > 5mm) are a less well-known form of plastic pollution. Microplastics cause significant environmental harm due to abundance and ability to transfer through the trophic system. Ingested microplastics have the potentially to be lethal to organisms by causing internal blockages, as well as exposure to toxins. To determine the presence of microplastics we assessed 6 sediment samples, 30 zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), 10 round goby fish (Neogobius melaanostromus), and 5 anurans from 5 sites along the St. Lawrence River from North of Ogdensburg to Cape Vincent. Sediment samples were sieved through 500 um, 250 um, 100 um, 50 um, and 20 um filters and residual material was separated by density in 0.897 g/ml ethanol and DI-water solution, 1g/ml DI water, as well as 1.1 g/ml 1.2 g/ml, and 1.5 g/ml stannous chloride solutions. Floated particles were extracted from the mediums using a vacuum and 20 um filter. Filters were then examined under a microscope (10X) and possible microplastics were extracted using a tungsten wire and adhesive. Microplastics and specific polymer type were then confirmed using Attenuated Fourier - Infrared (AF-IR) spectroscopy. The gastrointestinal tracts of organisms were removed from collected specimens and dried for > 24-hours at 60C. A proteinase enzyme protocol was applied to the sample and residual material was filtered through a 20 um paper filter. Similarly, filters were examined under microscope and possible microplastics were collected and confirmed using AF-IR spectroscopy. Micro-plastics were not visually detected by the naked eye in sediment or tissue samples, but preliminary results from a few analyses have detected microplastics in one sediment and one tissue sample using AF-IR. AF-IR confirmations will be completed in early April and analysis of results will soon follow.

Abstract:

Nesting boxes are an important habitat structure for some species, as they provide a safe brood raising environment when nest sites are sparse. Artificial nesting boxes are particularly important for species whose habitat has been degraded or lost to human activity and development. The project includes nesting boxes that target seven bird species, a variety of local bats species, and invertebrates. The goal of the project was to find the optimal placement for the nest boxes around the Saddlemire and Kip trails and is based on each species nesting and habitat preference. Preferences include proximity to water, other nests, and vegetation type [pasture, crop, open land, herbaceous, wetlands, and open water]. Nesting preference data was parameterized and used to conduct a GIS habitat suitability analysis. Using the nesting preferences as a guide, along with USGS National Landcover Dataset (NLCD), we were able to identify species specific habitats and potential locations within those habitats for each species’ box. This data will help guide the physical placement of the boxes when an on-site assessment is conducted to identify site characteristics not analyzed by GIS (e.g. tree height, accessibility). Two boxes for each target species will be installed using a paired nesting box experiment with one box located close to pedestrian traffic for interpretive purposes and another placed in the optimal habitat away from human disturbance. A monitoring program to evaluate occupancy and the success of the nesting boxes will provide an opportunity for citizen science and student research. The program will educate those involved about the habitat and resource requirements for different species of birds and bats, and allow students to see nesting patterns and life cycle changes up close. The ongoing monitoring process will allow students to map occupancy data over time and give some idea as to the makeup of species in the area. With a standardized method of monitoring, students will be able to give consistent and detailed representations of the success of each of the nesting boxes and observe the nature of interspecies and intraspecies relationships. Interpretive signs along the trail will have a description of potential inhabitants of each nest box type and information on how to participate in monitoring. The nesting box project is supported by an Innovation Grant from St. Lawrence University that targets bat box installations on the campus.

Abstract:

Monitoring chemical kinetics by NMR requires reproducible and accurate integration for hundreds of 1H NMR spectra, but existing software packaged with many instruments is insufficient for the purpose. Kinetics studies of the Wagner-Jauregg reaction between para-substituted styrenes and maleic anhydride for determination of the mechanism have been previously limited by NMR instrumentation and its accompanying software. This class of reactions is an example of a challenging problem in which variability between substrates and other background signals make good integrations difficult using common techniques. Custom code, written in Python and using the lmfit library incorporates the reproducible integration of multiple peaks and is adaptable for a variety of spectral features. A graphical user interface makes the code accessible to new users. With this additional analysis, the Diels–Alder-type mechanism of Wagner-Jauregg was confirmed by measuring the effects of substitutions on rate.

Abstract:

Human development results in critical habitat loss for many snake populations. Heterodon platirhinos (Eastern Hognose Snakes) were thought to be extirpated from Long Island, New York, until they were rediscovered in 2002 on the forest/sub-urban edge of Brookhaven National Laboratory. Thereafter, a radio-telemetry study monitored 16 snakes between 2003-2005. We are using Geospatial Information Systems (ArcGIS) to evaluate selection of soil type, vegetation, and slope by comparing habitat ‘used’ to habitat ‘available,’ post-hoc. We expect our results to give greater insight into Heterodon platirhinos’ spatial ecology at the third order and into how the population persisted and avoided detection on a crowded island with a strong herpetological history.