Setting Up Raspberry Pi

Navio+ Autopilot Expansion

Kevin Angstadt

University of Michigan



This tutorial describes the process of configuring the Raspberry Pi as a quadcopter autopilot using the Navi+ daughter card. The initial configuration (flashing of the MicroSD card) was tested using Mac OS X 10.11.1. Commands may vary from system to system.

Required Hardware

Note: Additional parts are needed for the quadcopter frame; however, this tutorial focuses on the installation of software on the Raspberry Pi.

Set Up Raspberry Pi

  1. Download the real-time Raspbian image from EMLID here.

    Determine the mount point of the MicroSD card. For example, use df -h. For me, this was /dev/disk2.

    df -h
    Filesystem      Size   Used  Avail Capacity  iused   ifree %iused  Mounted on
    /dev/disk1     233Gi  211Gi   22Gi    91% 55321127 5657687   91%   /
    devfs          330Ki  330Ki    0Bi   100%     1142       0  100%   /dev
    map -hosts       0Bi    0Bi    0Bi   100%        0       0  100%   /net
    map auto_home    0Bi    0Bi    0Bi   100%        0       0  100%   /home
    /dev/disk2s1    30Gi  2.4Mi   30Gi     1%        0       0  100%   /Volumes/NO NAME
  2. Ensure that the MicroSD card is unmounted, but not ejected.

    diskutil unmount "NO NAME"
  3. Write the image to the MicroSD card. I use pv to monitor the copy, but this is not necessary.

    dd if=~/Downloads/emlid-raspberrypi2-raspbian-rt-20150401.img | pv | sudo dd of=/dev/rdisk2 bs=1m
  4. Boot the Raspberry Pi using the MicroSD card. The username is pi and the password is raspberry.

    ***From this point forward, all commands are executed on the Raspberry Pi***

  5. Update the installed packages.

    sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  6. Reboot the Raspberry Pi. Verify that the real-time kernel is in use.

    uname -a 
    Linux navio-rpi 3.18.9-rt5-v7+ #1 SMP PREEMPT RT Thu Mar 26 10:31:34 UTC 2015 armv7l GNU/Linux

Install GCC 4.8

  1. Edit the sources list.

    sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list
  2. Make sure the file contains all of the following listings.

    deb wheezy main contrib non-free rpi
    deb wheezy main contrib non-free rpi
    # Source repository to add
    deb-src wheezy main contrib non-free rpi
    deb jessie main contrib non-free rpi
    deb jessie main contrib non-free rpi
    # Source repository to add
    deb-src jessie main contrib non-free rpi
  3. Open the preferences file.

    sudo nano /etc/apt/preferences
  4. Insert the following lines.

    Package: *
    Pin: release n=wheezy
    Pin-Priority: 900
    Package: *
    Pin: release n=jessie
    Pin-Priority: 300
    Package: *
    Pin: release o=Raspbian
    Pin-Priority: 200
  5. Update the package list.

    sudo apt-get update
  6. Install gcc/g++ 4.8 from the jessie repositories.

    sudo apt-get install -t jessie gcc-4.8 g++-4.8
  7. Set the default compiler to be gcc 4.8.

    sudo update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/gcc gcc /usr/bin/gcc-4.6 20
    sudo update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/gcc gcc /usr/bin/gcc-4.8 50
    sudo update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/g++ g++ /usr/bin/g++-4.6 20
    sudo update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/g++ g++ /usr/bin/g++-4.8 50
    sudo update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc /usr/bin/gcc-4.6 20
    sudo update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc /usr/bin/gcc-4.8 50
    sudo update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-g++ arm-linux-gnueabihf-g++ /usr/bin/g++-4.6 20
    sudo update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-g++ arm-linux-gnueabihf-g++ /usr/bin/g++-4.8 50

Clone and Build ArduCopter

  1. Clone the source.

      git clone git://
  2. Check out the Copter-3.3 branch

    cd ardupilot/ArduCopter
      git checkout Copter-3.3
  3. Build the source.

    make -j4 navio
  4. Move the executable out of the source code.

    sudo mkdir -p /opt/apm/bin
      sudo cp ArduCopter.elf /opt/apm/bin/ArduCopter-quad
  5. Make a symbolic link in the executable path.

    sudo ln -s /opt/apm/bin/ArduCopter-quad /usr/local/bin/ArduCopter-quad


Building for NAVIO+ on RPi2. Accessed 2015-12-21.

GCC 4.8 On Raspberry Pi Wheezy. Accessed 2015-12-21.

Real-time Linux for RPi2. Accessed 2015-12-21.

Last modified: 2015-12-21